Мир Знаний

Билеты для сдачи кандидатского минимума по английскому языку аспирантам специальностей правовед, бухгалтер, экономист, философ

аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

The need for enforcement

As the Court of Justice said in 1963, in thelandmark case of Van Gend en LaosNederlandseAdministratiederBelastingen(case 26/62), the European Community

constitutes a new legal order in international law, for whose benefitthe states have limited their sovereign rights ... and the subjectsof which comprise not only the member states but also theirnationals.

Whilst some may dispute the unique nature of this new legal order(see Wyatt, D., 'New Legal Order or Old?' (1982) 7 EL Rev 147) thereis no doubt that the law stemming from the three EC treatiescomprising the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty 1951,the Euratom Treaty 1957 and the European Economic Community (EEC)Treaty 1957, renamed the Economic Community (EC) by the Treaty onEuropean Union 1992, differs from traditional international law in anumber of important respects. First, the Treaties, particularly theEC Treaty, are much more extensive in their scope than mostinternational agreements, embracing many areas of activity normallyreserved to national law alone; secondly they created a strongframework of institutions, endowed with the power to make laws,binding on states and individuals, on all matters within their scope;and thirdly, and as a result of the first two factors, EC law isexceptional in the extent to which it penetrates domestic law,creating rights and obligations enforceable by and even againstindividuals before their national courts. These characteristics,taken together, have resulted in an immense and ever-growing body ofCommunity law, existing alongside and often conflicting with domesticlaw, and enforceable, directly or indirectly, within domestic legalsystems.

Because of its 'special' nature the enforcement of EC law raisesparticular problems for English lawyers. It requires a new approachto interpretation; the application of new techniques and principles;the modification of national actions taken by the institutions of theCommunity. They shall facilitate the achievement of the Community'stasks.

They shall abstain from, any measure which could jeopardise theattain­ment of the objectives of this Treaty.


Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202)565-3500 fax(202) 565-3513

811 vermontavenue, N.W. washington,D.C. 20571


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №2


Task I. Translatefrom English into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is45 minutes

Accordingly, judicial activity is essentially the last link in thechain of the crystallisation of the rule of law ... it is the bridgebetween the necessarily abstract legal rule and the necessarilyindi­vidual nature of the particular case. Every case isindividual and every rule abstract.

This doctrine obliterates any distinction between law and obligationor, more pre­cisely, legal relationships. The latter constituteonly the specific application of the former. This assimilation oflegal material has a peculiar consequence for the pres­entationof international law:

The actual content of international law is even more meagre than mayappear from its presentation in text-books, when we consider thatmost rules of international law are con­cerned with a definitionof subjective rights established by particular or general treaty.Rights of this nature would hardly appear in a presentation of asystem of municipal law which is composed of abstract rules of anobjective nature.

There is thus an apparent tension at the heart ofLauterpacht's concept of law. On the one hand, law lies in the legalrelationships established by the parties interse, while yet equally on the otherhand, law comprises precepts which exist independ­ently of theparties' will.

Further, Lauterpacht sees law as an imperativesystem, that is as a series of com­mands directed at the subjectsof the legal system to regulate their behaviour. Given his adhesionto pacta sunt servandaas the fundamental presupposition underpinning the system, once astate's agreement is given, whether tacitly or expressly, to a normthen the resulting rule binds the state independently of its will.Regardless of whether pacta suntservanda is a customary norm or initialhypothesis, it constitutes a command, i.e. a rule existingindependently of the will of the parties. It is of no consequencethat in the international sphere the command does not issue from apo­litical superior. Law may be a command without being thecommand of an organized po­litical community ... law may be acommand merely by virtue of its external nature.

Moreover, Lauterpacht's array appears to be conditioned by that ofKelsen, for whom 'the legal duty is the central and only essentialelement of the legal sys­tem'. It must be conceded that, albeitin the context of a discussion of the Permanent Court' competence,Lauterpacht stated that 'like the bulk of the rules of private law,the rules of international law are primarily of a permissivecharacter.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister of National Economy


28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visitto Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held inThesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate ifyou could find a few minutes in your dense business schedule and meetme and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.


Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

At present, only Germany and Portugal have a coherent group law,while other states make do with a few isolated rules scattered intheir national company laws. The draft will define when a groupexists. The decisive factor in this will be the parent company'scontrolling influence in law or de facto. Based on the German model,the draft will also state that dominance agreements must be drawn upbetween the parent company and the subsidiary, whereby the parentcompany directly takes over the management of the subsidiary. The'price' for this is to be a closely defined indemnification of thesubsidiary's minority shareholders and creditors. It is regrettablethat it has proved impossible so far to establish a uniform group lawin the Union, because the uncertainty surrounding the state of lawfor a transnational group is considerable. Development in Europeangroup law is virtually at a standstill, and many would welcome theadoption of the Ninth Directive, perhaps in yet another, even simplerform. Until then, group law will continue to develop in an ad hocmanner.

It is, however, an interesting aspect of this development that in itscase law, the European Court has undertaken a de facto furtherdevelopment of group law albeit only in certain areas. One of thecore questions of group law that national and/or Community lawprovisions ought to decide is the extent to which the group has aright, or perhaps an obligation, to be considered as an entity. Thismeans that the plurality of legal persons making up the group will bedeemed to be one with regard to rights and obligations. In a numberof situations, the core area of group law is the important factorwhen looking at whether the group should be treated as an entity oras a plurality. Subsequently, the choice arises between separate orjoint treatment of the group's legal persons. In this area, the Courthas demonstrated a flexibility and a will to develop which isscarcely evident in national legislators. I shall mention only acouple of examples from the Court's work.

Clearly the dominant principle within group law, as a branch ofcompany law, is that the individual group company is deemed to be anindependent entity with regard to both rights and obligations. Groupcompanies are not liable for one another, no set-offs are allowedbetween one company's trade debtors and another company's debts, etc.This principle is no obstacle, of course, to the individual groupcompanies accepting liabilities or finan­cial guarantees for oneanother.


European Business Law Review. September/October, 1998


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Joe Smith

Director General

Fair Trade Commission

USA


Re: NewInformational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives


20 August 1999


Dear Mr Smith


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in theInternational Conference

"New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review andPerspectives".


This high-level International Conference will take place in London,8-9 November 1999. It will host participants from competitionauthorities representing foreign and international organizations,governmental, academic and business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are English and French.


We would highly appreciate your participation in this event.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


William Brandt, Minister


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №4


Task I. Translate fromEnglish into Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45minutes

Lawand the Rule of Law

Lauterpacht located the International Court at the centre of theinternational legal order, arguing that the Court's original andprimary purpose was to decide disputes between States and, byfostering the rule of law among them, to contribute to internationalpeace. That purpose has not wholly materialized owing to thepolitical conditions prevailing after the Second World War and to thereluctance of Governments to confer upon the Court the requisitejurisdiction. These conditions are not necessarily of a permanentcharacter ... It is that purpose which, notwithstanding temporarysetbacks, must remain the abiding purpose of the judi­cialorganization of the community of nations under the rule of law.

Within this structure, legal officials, such as judges, play anindispensable role in securing the Rule of Law as when they apply thenecessary abstract rule of law to the concrete case, they create thelegal rule for the individual case before them.

The object of law to secure order must be defeated if a controversialrule of conduct may remain permanently a matter of dispute ... it isessential for the rule of law that there should exist agenciesbearing evidence, and giving effect, to the imperative nature of thelaw. The law's external nature may express itself either in the factthat it is a precept cre­ated independently of the will of thesubjects of the law, or that it is valid and continues to exist inrespect of the subjects of the law independently of their will.

The importance of the judicial function permeates Lauterpacht'sconcept of law. This is expressed in his argument for obligatoryjurisdiction that is itself a conse­quence of the emphasis whichLauterpacht gives to the gradual concretization of law. Apart fromthe search for a basic norm, this is the most prominent aspect ofLauterpacht's concept of law which is primarily associated withKelsen. Norms are relatively indeterminate as they cannot specify allthe conditions for their application.

The actual operation of the law in society is a process of gradualcrystallization of the ab­stract legal rule, beginning with theconstitution of the State, as the most fundamental and abstract bodyof rules, and ending with the concrete shaping of the individuallegal rela­tion by a judgement of a court, or by an adjudicationor decision of an administrative authority, or by an agreement of theinterested parlies.


lain J. M. Scobbie. The Theorist as Judge. European Journal ofInternational Law. Vol. 8 No 2, 1997.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

INTERNATIONAL& PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPT.

Athens, 29 December 1999


Mr. Alexey PROKOFIEV

Vice Minister


Subject: EOMMEX's data base


Dear Sir,


The Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises andHandicraft (EOMMEX) is the Public Body supporting the SME's in Greecesupervised by the Ministry of Development.


EOMMEX, is trying to enrich it's data base with all the existingnformation, in order to help the Greek SME's develop transnationalco-operations.


Therefore, we would very much appreciate if you would send us all theavailable information concerning the following topics :


1. The existing legislation on foreign investment.

2. The incentives that could attract foreign investments (e.g.current tax system e.t.c.).


We would like to thank you in advance for your kind co-operation.


Sincerely yours,

Kl. Stavrakakis Director


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45minutes

THE SCOPE OFCOMMUNITY LAW

If the goals of the original EEC Treaty were, as its name implied,primarily economic, they were so in the widest sense. The treaty wasfrom the beginning much more than a free trade agreement. TheCommunity's activities, outlined in Article 3 EEC, were to includethe elimination of all internal barriers to the free movement ofgoods, persons, services and capital (the common or single 'internalmarket', see now Article 7a EC); the approximation of the laws ofmember states to the extent required for the proper functioning ofthe common market (Article 100 EEC); the harmonisation of indirecttaxation (Articles 95-99); the establishment of common policies inthe spheres of agriculture and transport and the creation of aCommunity competition policy. States were to co-ordinate theireconomic policies 'in order that disequilibria in their balances ofpayments might be remedied'. In the field of external affairs theCommunity was to establish a common customs tariff and a commoncommercial policy towards countries outside the EEC ('thirdcountries') and to 'associate with overseas countries in order toincrease trade and to promote jointly economic and socialdevelopment'. The Community thus had extensive internal and externalcompetence in economic matters.

But even at the outset the goals of the EEC were not purely economic.The preamble of the EEC Treaty expressed the resolve of member states'to ensure the economic and social progress of their countries';their essential objective being the 'constant improvement of theliving and working conditions of their peoples'. Articles 117-128provided for action in the field of social policy, requiring statesto promote improved working conditions and improved living standardsfor workers. Article 119 provided a principle of equal pay for equalwork for men and women, the purpose of which, according to theEuropean Court, was both economic, to remove the competitiveadvantage of a (normally) cheaper workforce in states which failed toprovide for equal pay.

If the sphere of Community competence was large even at theCommunity's inception, it has been greatly extended since then,either by action by the EC institutions under Article 235, whichallows the institutions to 'take the appropriate measures' if actionby the Community 'should prove necessary to attain ... one of theobjectives of the Community and this Treaty has not provided thenecessary powers', or by amendments to the EEC Treaty provided bysubsequent treaties, the Single European Act (1986) and the Treaty onEuropean Union (the Maastricht Treaty (1992)).

________________________

EC European Community

EEC European Economic Community


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:


It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.


Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.

Sincerely.


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

In relation to the EU's tender regulations, theCourt has established that when a parent company submits a tender fora public contract and must document expertise and experience in therelevant area (eg building and construc­tion work), the parentcompany may also include the expertise possessed by one or more ofits subsidiaries rather than by the parent company itself, providedthat it is proved that the parent company 'actually has available theresources of those companies which are necessary for carrying out theworks'.

With regard to the EU's non-competition rules,when a competitor has complained of competition distorting groupagreements and practices, the Court has deemed several companiesacting as one entity to be one entity under the non-competitionrules. TheCourt ruled that when subsidiaries are completely unified with theparent company in their polices, they and the parent companyconstitute a single economic unit in the sense of Art 85 of theTreaty. It follows they the group's policy (eg co-ordinated pricepolicy) does not constitute distorting agreements or practices amongundertakings for the simple reason that these are not undertakings,but a single undertaking irrespective of the formal division into anumber of companies.

With regard to the EU's Television BroadcastingDirective, the Court has ruled that a television group is domiciled,and thus governed, by the television legislation in the state wherethe centre of its activities is located [programming etc). This meansthat the Court identifies all group companies and considers them as asingle entity, irrespective of whether or not the broadcastingactivities are formally divided among a number of companies across anumber of states. In practical terms this means that each subsidiaryis seen as a branch, and this makes the Court's decision worthy ofnote. See also the Court's Decision of 10September 1996. These judgments (andthere arc more) are all identifica­tions tothe advantage of the group. But a smallnumber of cases where the identification disadvantagedthe group may also be mentioned. The Court has affirmed that legalaction may be brought against a parent company in another state whereits subsidiary was domiciled, because the Court deemed it to be theparent company which in real terms was conducting its business inanother state, using its subsidiary merely as an extension of itself.

___________________

EU European Union


European Business Law Review. September/October, 1998


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Der President 10965BERLIN

des Bundeskartellamtes


18 December 1998


Minister

Gennadiy Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9thInternational Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin, the venue ofour last conference.


The subject of the 9thInternational Conference on Competition is:

Mega-mergers–


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlinas a participant at our 9thInternational Conference on Competition. As in previous conferences,a simultaneous translation will be in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,

Wolf


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Despite Article 5, states, sometimes deliberately, sometimesinadvertently, not infrequently failed to fulfil their Communityobligations. Whilst pro­cedures were provided under the Treatyfor action by the Commission or by member states before the Court ofJustice against states which had 'failed to fulfil their obligations'under Community law (Articles 169 and 170, see Chapter 11), theseprovisions proved insufficient on their own to secure the effectiveenforcement of EC law, for a number of reasons.

First, the Commission (or member state) may simply be unaware ofbreaches of Community law by member states. In a Community of twelveit is not possible for the Commission, with limited resources,effectively to monitor the laws and practices of all member states.

Secondly, although any person may complain to the Commission ofsuspected infringements of EC law by member states and request theCommission to act under Article 169, and the majority of Article 169proceedings have been found to result from such complaints, anindividual has no power to compel the Commission to act under Article169. The Commis­sion has a complete discretion in this matter.The enforcement of EC law against member states by Communityinstitutions is a sensitive matter. The Commission may choose not toproceed against insignificant failures. Where the breach is clear,and significant, the Commission can, and often does, achievecompliance-by-negotiation at the preliminary stages of the Article169 procedure; it will not then be necessary to proceed to the finalstage before the Court. Yet Individuals may have suffered damage as aresult of member states' prior actions in breach of EC law. They mayhave paid levies which were wrongfully imposed; or deprived ofrights, for example under Directives, which they would have enjoyedhad states fulfilled their Community obligations.

Thirdly, even where the Commission proceeds to action before theCourt under Article 169 and obtains a judgment under Article 171 thatthe state has 'failed to fulfil its Community obligations' the Courthas no power to impose sanctions to guarantee compliance. The stateis simply required to 'take the necessary measures' to comply withthe Court's judgment. If the State fails to take the necessarymeasures the Commission must resort to fresh Article 169 proceedingsfor the state's failure to comply with the Court's judgment underArticle 171.

_________________________

EC European Community


Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

H.E.

Mr. Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Dear Mr. Bogachev,


I want to thank you for your participation in thePolitical and Economic LeadersSummit of 7-8 February, inThessaloniki, in the frame of ASIA FORUM 2000.


You will soon receive a short report with the conclusions. We proceedalso to the publication of the Proceedings.


We have started the preparations for the BusinessMeeting and Exhibition of 23-28 May.We hope to have your support in motivating enterprises andbusinessmen to participate in the event.


We shall ask your active involvement in the May event very soon.


Thanking you once again, I remain


Sincerely yours


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

A Protocol on Social Policy attached to the treaty, from whichBritain opted out, declared as its objectives the promotion ofemployment, improved living and working conditions, proper socialprotection, dialogue between management and labour, the developmentof human resources with a view to lasting high employment and thecombating of exclusion (Article 1).

The Community was required to develop trans-European networks(Article 129b EC) and to contribute to the development of educationand vocational training and the flowering of European culture(Articles 126, 127, 128 EC), albeit in these latter cases in asupporting role, 'supplementing' and 'encourag­ing' the actionsof member states, pursuant to the principle of subsidiarity.

As well as amending the EC Treaty the treaty on European Unionprovided for co-operation with a view to the framing of commonpolicies in the fields of foreign and security policy, and eventuallydefence, and in justice and home affairs. These matters remainstrictly intergovernmental, in the nature of a 'normal' internationalagreement and outside the institutional framework of the EC treaty;as such they will not be subject to the jurisdiction of the EuropeanCourt, nor will they be the concern of the British courts. Whenmember states are acting under these provisions they are acting asmembers of the European Union. The term 'European Community' willcontinue to apply to matters pertaining specifically to the ECtreaty.

It is clear from the above brief outline that the scope of the lawstemming from the EC treaty, and of Community competence, is nowextremely wide. Within this area of competence the Communityinstitutions have power, subject only to the limitations provided bythe treaty, to pass laws, binding on states and individuals. As wellas provisions of the EC Treaty which may be enforced by nationalcourts, there now exists a substantial body of EC secondarylegislation in all the areas of activity outlined above, fleshing outthe basic principles of the treaty. Much of this law is directlyenforceable within national legal systems. Where it is not it may benecessary for national courts to take it into account in interpretingnational law. The Index of Community Activities listed in theDirectory of Community Legislation in force. Official Journal (OJ) ofthe European Communities, indicates the range of Community law. AllEC secondary legislation is published in the Official Journal (L)series; it is listed, analytically (Volume I) and chronologically(Volume II), with the appropriate OJ reference, in the Directoryitself.

________________________

EC European Community


Enforcing EC Law. Josephine Steiner. Blackstone Press Limited, 1995


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000


VIA FEDEX


Mr. Alexander Ivanov

President

MICEX


Moscow

RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the proposed Joint Statement on TechnicalAssistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Commodity FuturesTrading Commission ("CFTC").


We understand that your office will undertake to forward thisdocument to Chairman Parkov.


If the Russian finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms.Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Bestregards.


Sincerely yours,


Jeffrey A. Burt


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

The Task of theInternational Judge

Lauterpacht argues that in avoiding a declarationof non liqiietby filling material gaps in the law the judge is necessarilycreative:

The rejection of the admissibility of nonliqiiet implies the necessity forcreative activity on (the part of international judges. Legalphilosophy in the domain of municipal jurispru­dence has shownthe possibilities and, indeed, the inevitability of the law-creatingfunc­tion, within defined limits, of the judge within the State.

The development of international law by theInternational Court, its secondary function, is, for Lauterpacht,clearly and expressly connected with the doctrine of gradualconcretization. In exercising this function, the Court is not boundto base its decision simply on the arguments and considerationsraised in the parties' pleadings as in interpreting and applyingconcrete legal rules the Court does not act as an automaticslot-machine, totally divorced from the social and politicalrealities of the international community. It exercises in each case acreative activity, having as its background the en­tirety ofinternational law and the necessities of the international community.The dis­tinction between the making of law by judges and by thelegislature is upon analysis one of degree ... judicial activity isnothing else than legislation inconcreto ...

But this is legislation within limits. The creativity ofinternational judges must stop short of interference with establishedrights. If these are a cause of friction, then they might be a fitobject for legislative change, but legisiation cannot be let in by abackdoor by transforming the nature of the judicial function'.Moreover, even where the judiciary is creative, its rulings arethemselves relatively indeterminate: Judicial legislation is not -and ought not to be - like legislative codification by statute. Itcannot attempt to lay down all the details of the application of theprinciple on which it is based. It lays down the broad principle andapplies it to the case before it. Its elaboration must be left in.addition to any doctrinal elucidation of the law by writers, toordinary legislative processes or to future judicial decisionsdisposing of the problems as they arise.

The clear conclusion to be drawn is that Lauterpacht views theinternational judicial function as one which is law creative, ratherthan as merely the elucidation of the specific legal relationshipswhich obtain between the parties.


Iain J. M. Scobbie. The Theorist as Judge. European Journal ofInternational Law. Vol. 8 No 2, S997.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

athens travel service

2-4 Alopekis sir., 10675 Alhens

Tel: 00301-33 3 5254*Fax:00301-333 5256


Date: 07/08/00

To: Mr A.Egorov

From: C.Vakali

Ref: Eommex group20/8-03/9/00


With reference to the above group, we would like to inform you withthe following.

SCHEDULE

OA 352 20/8 Moscow-Athens 1450-1725

OA 351 03/9 Athens-Moscow 0930-1355

You are kindly requested not to issue tickets for those nottravelling. All issued unused tickets must be delivered to ourrepresentative at the airport otherwise you will be charged. Uponyour arrival at the Athens airport you will be met bv ourrepresentative, holding a sign:


EOMMEX

ATHENS TRAVEL SERVICE


We would like to know which person will be in charge as head of thegroup during their stay in Greece.

The group will stay at the Training Center of the National Bank.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis



аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:международноеправо; европейскоеправо)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes

The EFTA Court.The EEAAgreement also required the EFTAstates to create an EFTA Court, which was created with effect from IJanuary 1994. It consists of five judges appointed for a six-yearrenewable term. It sits only in plenary session, although it couldrequest the EFTA states to permit it to establish chambers. There areno Advocates-General. The sole working language is English exceptwhere the Court directs otherwise and where national courts referquestions for interpretative opinions3.Its seat is in Geneva.

The jurisdiction of the EFTA Court.The forms of process before the EFTA I Court fall into fivecategories:

(a) Infringement proceedings raised by the. EFTASurveillance Authority against an EFTA state, analogous to article169 of the ECTreaty.

(b) Settlement of disputes between EFTA states relating to the EEA,analogous to article 170 of the EC Treaty.

(c) Actions to annul a decision of the EFTA Surveillance Authority,analogous to articles 173 and 174(1) of the EC Treaty. The first suchaction was raised in April 1994.

(d) Actions against the EFTA Surveillance Authority for failure toact, analogous to article 175 of the EC Treaty.

(e) Advisory opinions to national courts of EFTA states. But it isimportant to note that there are significant differences between thisprocedure and article 177 of the EC Treaty. First, because the EEATreaty does not require the transfer of legislative authority to anyEEA institution, advisory opinions of the EFTA Court are, unlikepreliminary rulings from the Court of Justice, non-binding. Second,an advisory opinion may be sought only upon the interpretation of theEEA Treaty, and not upon the interpretation or validity of acts ofthe institutions. Further, there is no obligation to seek an advisoryopinion, even for courts of last instance, and national rules mayrestrict access to the procedure to courts of last instance".The first request for an advisory opinion, from a Finnish cus­tomsappeal committee, was lodged in April 1994 and decided in December1994.

__________________________________

EC EuropeanCommunity

EEC EuropeanEconomic Community

EFTA EuropeanFree Trade Association

EEA EuropeanEconomic Area


DavidA.0. Edward & Robert C. Lane. European Community Law. AnIntroduction. Second Edition. Butterwiths Law Society of Scotland,Edinburgh, 1995


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202)565-3500 fax(202) 565-3513

811 vermontavenue, N.W. washington,D.C. 20571


Task III. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes

Article1. Basic Principles of Ciil Legislation

1. Civil legislation is based on the recognition of the equality ofthe participants in the relations regulacd by it, the inviolabilityof ownership, freedom of contract, the necessity of the unhin­deredrealization of civil law rights, enairing the restoration ofvio­lated rights and judicial protection of them.

2. Citizens (natural persons) and legal persons shall obtain andexercise their civil law rights by their own will and in their owninter­est. They shall be free in the establishnent of theirrights and duties on the basis of contract and in determinng anyterms of contract not contradictory to legislation.

Civil law rights may be limited on the basis of a Federal statute andonly to the extent to which it is necessary for the purposes ofdefending the bases of the Constitutional order, the morals, health,rights, and legal interests of other persois, of ensuring the defenseof the country and the security of the state

3. Goods, services, and financial assets may be moved freely about onthe whole territory of the Russian Federation.

Article2. Relations Regulated by Civil Legislation

1. Civil legislation determines the legal position of thepartici­pants in civil commerce, the grounds for the origin andthe procedure for realization of the right of ownership and otherrights in things, of exclusive rights to the results of intellectualactivity (intellectual prop­erty), regulates contractual andother obligations and also other prop­erty relations and relatedpersonal non-property relations based upon equality, autonomy of willand the property independence of the par­ticipants.

Citizens and legal persons are the participants in relationsregu­lated by civil legislation. The Russian Federation, subjectsof the Russian Federation, and municipal formations may alsoparticipate in relations regulated by civil legislation (Article124).

Civil legislation regulates the relations between persons engag­ingin entrepreneurial activity or with their participation, proceedingfrom the position that entrepreneurial activity is independentactivity done at one's own risk directed at the systematic receipt ofprofit from the use of property, sale of goods, performance of work,or rendering of service by persons registered in this capacity by thepro­cedure established by a statute.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visitto Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held inThesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate ifyou could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet meand discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation andassistance. Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №2


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes

RecentTrends

I will primarily discuss the criminalresponsibility of individuals for violations of internationalhumanitarian law. In the process, 1 will make the necessarydistinction between international and internal armed conflicts.

In terms of actual practice, not much had happened since Friedmann'sbook, since Nuremberg, except for a number of national prosecutionsfor war crimes and crimes against humanity, until the atrocities inYugoslavia shocked the conscience of mankind. Within a short time,these events triggered the Security Council, acting under Chapter VIIof the UN Charter, to promulgate the Statutes of the InternationalCriminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. Theyalso provided the impetus for the ILC to adopt its draft statute forthe proposed international criminal court.

In the interim period, despite the lack of ongoingpractice, the opinio jurisand the international consensus on the legitimacy of the Nurembergprinciples, the applica­bility of the principle of universaljurisdiction to crimes under international law, and the need topunish those responsible for egregious violations of internationalhumanitarian law solidified. In addition, many treaties providing fornational prosecution of crimes, of international concern wereadopted. Universal jurisdiction has been thus recognized with regardto such crimes as attacks on the safety of civil aviation andmaritime navigation, and also in case of egregious infringement ofhuman rights, as for example, torture under the 1984 United NationsConvention. This trend is well articulated in the draft basicprinciples and guidelines on the right of reparation for victims ofgross violations of human rights and humanitarian law, which providethat: 'Every State shall provide for universal jurisdiction overgross violations of human rights and humanitarian law whichconstitute crimes under international law.

The statutes of the two Tribunals represent a major advance over theCharter of Nuremberg. First, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventionsand the crime of genocide occupy the central place in the statutes.Second, the Yugoslav Statute recognizes crimes against humanity fornon-international armed conflicts, not only for international wars,and the Rwanda Statute arguably acknowledges such crimes even inpeacetime.


European Journal of International Law. Vol. 9, Nol, 1998. OxfordUniversity Press


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes

Applicationof Section 45 - the Undueness Test

Section 45 is the general anti-conspiracy provision in the Act andtakes the approach that agreements between competitors areunacceptable only where they cause, or are likely to cause,substantial anticompetitive effects in the relevant market if carriedinto effect. Specifically, the prosecution must show that theagreement does or would affect competition "unduly", whichthe Supreme Court of Canada has interpreted, as having a serious orsignificant effect on competition as determined by a two stageexamination.

The first stage is to determine if the parties to the agreement havemarket power in the relevant market, which is the ability tounilaterally affect industry pricing. Market share alone, although asignificant factor, is not sufficient to demonstrate market power;other important factors include the number of competitors andconcentration of competition and barriers to entry. The Supreme Courthas noted that possession of even a moderate amount of market powermay support a finding of undueness. If a group of conspiring SME's donot together have power in the relevant market, they will notcontravene this provision. The Supreme Court has stated that absentsuch power, agreements to restrict competition would either benefitthe public by allowing small firms to consolidate their position andbe more competitive, or dissolve under competitive pressures.

The second stage requires the court to look at theparties' behaviour to determine whether some behaviour likely toinjure competition has occurred, or is likely to occur. It is acombination of market power and behaviour that makes a lessening ofcompetition undue; particularly injurious behaviour may triggerliability even if market power is not considerable. This unduenessanalysis has been characterized' as a "partial" rule ofreason approach, since it involves consideration of theanticompetitive effects of an agreement unlike a perse offence, but does not considerefficiencies of the agreement as would a full rule of reasonanalysis. Therefore, even those forms of cooperation whose solepurpose is to restrict competition, such as price fixing, are notillegal unless they have the requisite economic impact in therelevant market, without which their conduct should be subject todiscipline by existing competitors and potential new entrants.

While the general anti-conspiracy provision mightnot apply to an agreement among SME's in which the participantscannot unduly affect competition, bid-rigging is the one type ofconspiracy which is expressly treated as perse illegal under section 47 of the Act.This different treatment is due to the fact that bid-rigging hashistorically been treated more harshly because it was consideredsimilar to fraud.


Series Roundtables on Competition Policy. OECD, Paris, 1997


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 anInternational Conference "New Prospects of scientific andtechnological and production cooperation of Russia with foreignstates" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite arepresentative from your Ministry and two persons representingbusiness circles.


The working languages of the Conference areRussian, German and English. For further information please contactMs Golovina (tel.: 456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is45 minutes

CIVIL AND PUBLICLAW

Maincategories

One important distinction made in all thesecountries is between private - or civil - law and public law.Civil law concerns disputes amongcitizens within a country, and publiclaw concerns disputes between citizensand the state, or between one state and another. The main categoriesof English civil law are:

Contracts: binding agreements between people (or companies);

Torts: wrongs committed by one individual against anotherindividual's person, property or reputation;

Trusts: arrangements whereby a person administers property foranother person's benefit rather than his own Land Law;

Probate: arrangements for dealing with property after the owner'sdeath;

Family Law.

The main categories of public law are:

Crimes: wrongs which, even when committed against anindividual are considered to harm the well-being of society ingeneral;

Constitutional Law: regulation of how the law itself operates and ofthe relation between private citizen and government;

International Law: regulation of relations between governments andalso between private citizens of one country and those of another.

In codified systems there are codes that correspond to thesecategories, for example, France's Code Civil and Code Penal.Justinian's Roman codes covered such areas of law as contracts,property, inheritance, torts, the family, unjust enrichment, the lawof persons, and legal remedies, but said little about criminal law.Consequently, most Continental criminal codes are entirely moderninventions.

Differences inprocedure

The standards of proof are higher in a criminal action than in acivil one since the loser risks not only financial penalties but alsobeing sent to prison (or, in some countries, executed). In Englishlaw the prosecution must prove the guilt of a criminal "beyondreasonable doubt"; but the plaintiff in a civil action isrequired to prove his case «on the balance of probabilities."Thus, in a case a crime cannot be proven if the person or personsjudging it doubt the guilt of the suspect and have a reason (not justa feeling or intuition) for this doubt. But in a civil case, thecourt will weigh all the evidence and decide what is most probable.

In Anglo-American law, the party bringing acriminal action (that is, in most cases, the state) is called theprosecution, but the party bringing acivil action is the plaintiff.In both kinds of action the other party is known as the defendant.A criminal case against a person called Ms Sanchez would be describedas «The People vs. (= versus, or against) Sanchez" in theUnited States and «R. (Regina, that is, the Queen) vs. Sanchez»in England. But a civil action between Ms Sanchez and a Mr Smithwould be «Sanchez vs. Smith" if it was started by Sanchez,and "Smith vs. Sanchez» if it was started by Mr Smith.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes

That law is an effect of lawyers' imagination is nowhere clearer thanin the devel­opment of international law from the isolateddiplomatic practices of the nineteenth century into a legal ordersometime early in the twentieth. Professional jurists took it uponthemselves to explain international affairs in the image of thedomestic state, governed by the Rule of Law. For that purpose, theyinterpreted diplomatic treaties as legislation, developed a wide andelastic doctrine of customary law, and described the state as asystem of competences, allocated to the state by a legal order. Aculture of professional international law was created through thesetting up of the first international associations of jurists,doctrinal periodicals as well as the publication of many-volumedpresenta­tions of state practice in the form of systematic legaltreatises.

It was not a simple task to conceive of diplomatic correspondence anda few arbi­trations as manifestations of an autonomous legalorder. In 1935 a sceptic still de­scribed the situation in thefollowing terms:

There is in fact, whatever the names used in the books, no system ofinternational law -and still less, of course, a code. What is to befound in the treatises is simply a collection of rules which, whenlooked at closely, appear to have been thrown together, or to havebeen accumulated, almost al haphazard.

Two strategies seemed possible. One could either take whatevermaterials - treaties and cases - one could find that bore someresemblance to domestic law and explain the inevitable gaps in thesystem as a result of the 'primitive' character of international law.Otherwise one could try to expand the law's scope by arguing, asGrotius had done, from Roman and domestic law, general principles andideas about a common morality. Although in fact both avenues werefollowed, the former seemed to realize better the statism and theobjective of the 'scientification' of law that had been the great aimof nineteenth century jurisprudence.


Martti Koskenniemi Lauterpacht: The VictorianTradition in International Law EuropeanJournal of International Law. Vol. 8 No2, 1997.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister ofInternational Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. Ihope that you will accord him the same goodwill and assistance youhave granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №6


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes

The Economic Roleand Definition of SME's

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises ("SME") play animportant role in the Canadian economy, 'providing significantemployment, innovation, variety and competition in many differentsectors. This role is recognized in section 1.1 of the CompetitionAct ("Act"), which states that the general aim of the Actis to maintain and encourage competition in Canada in order toensure, among other things, that small and medium-sized enterpriseshave an equitable opportunity to participate in the Canadian economy.Although this is a stated goal of Canadian competition law, there areno specific exclusions or special rules applicable to suchenterprises. However, because of their relatively small size, SME'smay fall below the anticompetitive thresholds necessary to triggerthe application of many of the provisions of the Act including thegeneral prohibition against conspiracies in section 45. A furtherconsideration is whether enforcement action against a particularagreement between SME's is justified according to the CompetitionBureau's enforcement priorities and case screening criteria.

For the purposes of competition analysis generally, it is not usefulto define what is or is not an SME on the sole basis of absolute sizecriteria (such as annual revenue, personnel or output) below which afirm might be considered an SME. Instead, competition analysis isconcerned with the ability of a firm or group of firms to actindependently of the rest of the competitors in a particular market.This type of comparative analysis of the relative market power offirms in a particular market make absolute criteria a poor benchmarkfor determining whether a firm is an SME in a particular market. Forinstance, a firm that might be considered to be large in terms ofrevenue, personnel and output in a particular industry and marketmight be considered to be an SME in comparison to the much largerfirms that exist in a different market. Definition of the relevantproduct and geographic markets is key since the larger the relevantmarket, i.e. the greater the number of firms producing substitutableproducts and geographic area in the market, the less likely that afirm will have the market power necessary to cause substantialanticompetitive effects. Markets are typically defined in terms ofthe smallest group of products and geographic area in whichparticipants could impose a significant and non-transitory priceincrease (generally a price, increase of five per cent is consideredsignificant and a one year period to be non-transitory). In assessingthe relevant markets in conspiracy cases, it is important to notethat the parties to the alleged agreement may have already exercisedmarket power and thus any observed willingness by customers to switchor new competitors to enter may overstate their competitivesignificance.

_________________________________

SME Small andMedium Enterprises


Series Roundtables on Competition Policy. OECD, Paris, 1997


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held inLondon from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is verythe traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importancewill be important.


Considering your great contribution to thedevelopment of the Russian advertising business, we are confidentthat your contacts with leaders of the advertising industry fromaround the world will have a positive effect on the furtherdevelopment of the advertising market in Russia.


Sincerely,


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №7


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes

Special treatment of SME under competition law- exemption from general ban on cartels

Reasons for special treatment under competitionpolicy

The survival of SME may be threatened inter alia by processes ofstructural change, intensifying competition based on efficiency andanticompetitive practices or abusive conduct by large firms, whethercompetitors, suppliers or buyers. Co-operation agreements among SMEare often assessed from the perspective that SME have no chance ofsurvival in competition with large firms if the latter use economiesof scale. Where competitive disadvantages result from relativelysmall size only, attempts are often made to compensate for thosedisadvantages by other means. Close co-operation among SME is thenconsidered a means of ensuring survival and offsetting structuraldisadvantages.

While the group of SME is heterogeneous, the following broadstatements can be made -although there may be a few examples to thecontrary -: One of the purely size-induced disadvantages of SMEvis-a-vis large firms is poor access to the capital market. Owing totheir relatively small size, SME have little or no access to certainsources of finance. Since SME are often single-product firms, thepossibilities of risk-spreading and compensatory pricing are as arule very limited, which raises their sensitivity to cyclical andstructural fluctuations. Owing to their manufacturing conditions,which are marked as a rule by small lot and batch sizes, SME can onlytake limited advantage of cost savings in the production process. AsSME purchase smaller volumes than large firms, their terms andconditions tend to be less favourable. In addition, they are oftenless likely to attract highly qualified staff. As a result of theabove disadvantages, even their international competitiveness isgenerally thought to be inferior to that of large firms.

By contrast, it is considered the SME's specific advantage over largefirms that, being closer to the market, they are more ready to takerisks and able to more quickly respond and make adjustments.Time-consuming processes of co-ordination and decision-making canoften be dispensed with so that SME can quickly respond to marketprocesses. Direct contact with buyers and greater closeness to themarket often allows them to better meet specific customer needs. SMEmoreover often are firms with a high degree of specialisation.

________________________________

SME Small andMedium Enterprises


Series Roundtables on Competition Policy. OECD, Paris, 1997


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participatein the International Conference "10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow,18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign andinternational organizations, governmental, academic and businesscircles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy andcompetition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes

Business CyclePolicy as a Matter of Common Concern

Article 103 obligates the Member States to consider business cyclepolicy a matter of common concern. This means that except to theextent that decisions of the Council based on Article 103 createCommunity law, business cycle policy remains within the competence ofeach Member State. On the other hand, the Member States do not remainentirely free, for in its actions each Member State must bear in mindany possible impact on the other Member States. Furthermore, eachMember State has a justified interest in watching business cycledevelopments in all other Member States. Finally, there would seem tobe a right to complain if a Member State occasioned unfavorablebusiness cycle developments.

The right to complain poses a difficult problem. Although certainaims of the Treaty, especially those listed in Article 104, do notimpose legally binding obligations, it may be questioned whether thesame holds true if these aims are significant for business cyclepolicy and thus become a matter of common concern.

A clear remedy exists if the business cycle policy of a Member Statedisregards the common interest to such an extent that competitiveconditions among the Member States are seriously distorted. Sinceunder Article 101, a qualified Council majority suffices, thesedistortions can be eliminated by directives pursuant to that Articleeven against the will of the Member State affected. In any event, therelative autonomy Article 103 leaves the Mem­ber States is not anexcuse for ignoring other binding Community rules. Hence a MemberState cannot justify a national rule which does not conform to aCommunity pricing scheme for agricultural products on the ground thatthe rule is designed as a means of fighting inflation, and Article103 gives the Member States competence in that area. On the otherhand, given the present limited amount of integration, Member Statesmay pursue a general incomes policy, even if that policy affects agroup, such as farmers, who are the object of Community policy goals,so long as the national measures do not distort the function­ingof the Community market organization (without mentioning Article 103probably illustrating how little known article 103 is).


The Law of the European Community. A Commentary on the EEC Treaty.Hans Smit, Peter E. Herzog. Matthew Bender, May 1998. Vol 3


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, whois a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate ifyou could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №9


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes

Criminalization ofActs of Corporations

Friedmann himselfreferred to the trend of criminalivzing offences by legal persons,such as corporations. In opposition to the ILC's adoption of theconcept of international crimes, many cite the maxim impossibileest quod societas delinquat. However,the increasing departure from this maxim in national laws suggeststhat opposition to the concept of international crimes stems fromstate sovereignty rather than from the character of the state as alegal person.

In addition to the individual criminalresponsiblity of the officers of a corporation,in the modern business world acorporation itself may be criminally liable for the actions oromissions of agents acting on the corporation's behalf, in the scopeof their employment. The movement towards this form ofCriminalization began in areas of strict liability, where no mensrea was required, but soon expanded tocrimes requiring,a certain mental state. This was achieved through imputing to thecorporation not only the acts, but also the mental state, of itsemployees. Whereas individuals would be punished by imprisonment oreven death, corporations have been penalized by fines or punitivedamages.

Even though labelled civil rather than criminal, treble damages foranti-trust violations have become a major feature in evaluating themovement of the law towards the imposition of punitive sanctions. Therole of parallel developments in many countries, which influencegeneral principles of law and, in many cases, general principles ofcriminal law, reinforces the impact of such treble damages.

The action for civil treble damages in the United States forviolation of the Sherman Act or other anti-trust legislation may beinitiated by either the government, private individuals orcorporations. This civil action is in addition to governmentalenforcement through both criminal and civil action, for example, byenjoining an illegal transaction. Governmental criminal action leadsto fines on corporations and their officers and, wheneverappropriate, imprisonment of the corporation's officers. Allowingprivate parties to sue to supplement governmental enforcement meansthat private parties are allowed to act, in effect, as privateattorneys general. I emphasize this point to illustrate thatsignificant sanctions can also be carried out through private agents.Thus, the dividing line between civil and criminal action may bebecoming blurred in several areas of the law.


European Journal of International Law. Vol. 9, Nol, 1998. OxfordUniversity Press


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9thInternational Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9thInternational Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlinas a participant at our 9thInternational Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translationservice will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:гражданскоеправо; предпринимательскоеправо;
семейноеправо; мчп)


билет №10


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes

Forms of andlimits to SME co-operation

There are forms of co-operation among SME which do not in any wayaffect their scope of competitive action and parameters. In theabsence of exclusivity arrangements, co-operation in the fields oftraining, common quality control or the sharing of transport does notnecessarily involve restraints of competition. Such co-operation mayoften take the shape of cartel-free co-operation agreements.

Forms of co-operation whose sole purpose and intent is therestriction of competition are not to be exempt from a general ban oncartels. Therefore, no price agreements - not even among SME - shouldbe permitted. Nor can co-operation among large firms only bepermitted on the ground that the co­operation agreement isintended to benefit SME.

Problems do arise, however, when it comes to assessinganticompetitive effects of SME co­operation and weighing themagainst potential positive effects, or to defining the limits toco-operation and laying down suitable criteria.

Where to draw the line for a particular co-operation agreement in aspecific market, however, can only be determined by an examination ofevery single case.

Inter-company co-operation which covers production, finance, management, administration, purchasing and/or selling as a ruleinvolves diverse types of anticompetitive effects. In practice, theanticompetitive effects have to be weighed against the positiveeffects to see whether they are acceptable.

Nearly all forms of co-operation may enhance efficiency: conceivableare expansion of production, measures to improve the quality ofproducts, extend the product range, shorten delivery channels anddates, reduce freight cost, share means of advertising or researchfacilities, streamlined purchasing or selling. Production shutdownsor closure, however, cannot be considered to enhance efficiency.Common purchasing or selling which involves exclusivity arrangementsoften results in a considerable restriction of the freedom of actionand choice of the parties concerned or the opposite side of themarket and may amount to a serious restraint of competition in aparticular case which may outweigh the positive effects of theco-operation agreement and lead to prohibition.

__________________________________

SME Small andMedium Enterprises


Series Roundtables on Competition Policy. OECD, Paris, 1997


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on TechnicalAssistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. TradingCommission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward thisdocument to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notifyMs. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Bestregards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis



аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №1


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


SOMALIA

The downfall in January 1991 of President Siad Barre, the leader ofSomalia for 21 years, resulted in a power struggle and clan clashesin many parts of the country. In November, intense fighting broke outin the capital, Mogadishu, between the faction supporting InterimPresident Ali Mahdi Mohamed and the faction supporting GeneralMohamed Farah Aidid, Chairman of the United Somali Congress.

Fighting spread to other regions of the country, with heavily armedelements controlling various parts of Somalia. Wide-spread death anddestruction forced hundreds of thousands of people to flee theirhomes. Almost 5 million people - over half the population - werethreatened by hunger and disease. Nearly one million people soughtrefuge outside the country.

Despite the turmoil, the United Nations continued its humanitarianeffort, and by March 1991 was fully engaged in the country, incooperation with several non-governmental organizations. TheSecretary-General also became increasingly involved with thepolitical aspects of the conflict, in cooperation with theOrganization of African Unity (OAU), the League of Arab States (LAS)and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC).

In December, the Secretary-General dispatched an envoy to Somalia inan effort to restore peace. During that visit, all faction leadersexpressed support for a United Nations role in bringing aboutnational reconciliation.

On 23 January 1992, the Security Council imposed an arms embargo onSomalia and urged all parties to cease hostilities.

On 31 January, the Secretary-General invited Interim President AliMahdi and General Aidid, as well as the LAS, the OAU and the OIC, tosend representatives to attend talks in February at United NationsHeadquarters. The talks succeeded in getting the two factions toagree on a cease-fire, and to a visit by a delegation composed of theUnited Nations and the three regional organizations.

After intensive negotiations conducted by the delegation, the twoparties signed in March an agreement on the implementation of thecease-fire. Further talks led to agreements on a cease-fire to bemonitored by United Nations observers, and on the protection ofhumanitarian convoys by United Nations security personnel.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visitto Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held inThesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate ifyou could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet meand discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №2


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


SOMALIA

On 24 April, the Security Council established theUnited Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM), to facilitate thecessation of hostilities and themaintenance of a cease-fire, and to promote a political settlement.

The Secretary-General appointed a Special Representative for Somalia,who left for the region on l May. In early July, 50 United Nationsmilitary observers arrived in Mogadishu, followed by some 500 UnitedNations security personnel. Meanwhile, humanitarian efforts werebeing carried out by six United Nations organizations and more than30 relief organi­zations.

In August, the Secretary-General reported to the Security Counciithat the United Nations and its partners were ready to provide muchgreater assistance, but were prevented from doing so by thelawlessness and lack of security prevailing throughout Somalia. Herecommended deploying up to 3,000 security troops to protect thehumanitarian efforts. This proposal was endorsed by the Council.

In October and November, the situation continued to deteriorate. Asfamine threatened some 1.5 million lives, Somalia remained without acentral government, Mogadishu was divided by rival militias and thecountry by a dozen factions.

The delivery of humanitarian aid became more and more difficult.Relief ships were blocked from docking and even shelled. Ports andairports came under fire. Money and relief supplies were beingextorted from donor agencies, and the lives of their personnel tryingto distribute aid to starving people were being put in danger.

As a result, only a trickle of relief supplies was reaching theneedy. According to some estimates, as many as 3,000 people a daywere dying of starvation. Unless the security problems were solved,United Nations and relief agencies would be unable to provide themassive assistance needed. On 24 November, the Secretary-Generalreported to the Security Council on the deteriorating Situation inSomalia and on the factors preventing UNOSOM from carrying out itsmandate.

On 3 December, the Security Council accepted an offer, made on 25November by the United States, to take the lead in organizing andcommanding an Operation to ensure the delivery of humanitarianrelief. Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter, which deals withenforcement measures, the Council authorized the use of all necessarymeans to establish a secure environment for humanitarian reliefoperations.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter ofInvitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


CENTRAL AMERICA

The United Nations has supported from the start the efforts ofCentral American Governments to bring peace to the region. Thecombined action of the Security Council, the General Assembly and theSecretary-General has helped to resolve several protracted conflicts.

In 1987, the Presidents of five Central American countries - CostaRica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua - signed theEsquipulas II agreement, by which they undertook to launch aregion-wide process of democratization and national dialogue, bringabout a cease-fire, and promote free and fair elections.

In February 1989, the five Presidents decided to set up a mechanismto verify the agreement with United Nations participation. Theyagreed to draw up a plan for the voluntary demobilization of themembers of the Nicaraguan resistance (also known as "contras").And Nicaragua announced it would call general elections underinternational and United Nations supervision.

In August 1989, at Nicaragua's request, the United Nations ObserverMission for the Verification of Elections in Nicaragua (ONUVEN)started operations in the country. It monitored the entirepreparation and holding of the elections - the first UnitedNations-monitored elections in an independent country.

On election day, 25 February 1990, ONUVEN observers visited pollingstations in 141 of the country's 143 municipalities and monitoredvote counting. ONUVEN concluded that the elections had been conducted"in a highly commendable manner".

On the request of both the President and President-elect, a UnitedNations team facilitated a peaceful political transition and played arole in various negotiations that followed the elections. The successof ONUVEN helped create conditions for the voluntary demobilizationof the Nicaraguan resistance.

That demobilization was overseen by another United Nations mission,the United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA), whichhad been established in November 1989 as a mechanism to verify thesecurity aspects of Esquipulas II, following a request from the fiveCentral American countries. ONUCA established a presence in all fivecountries to verify the end of assistance to irregular forces andinsurrectionist movements, and the end of the use of one country'sterritory for attacks on other countries.

In March 1990, the Security Council enlarged ONUCA's mandate toinclude overseeing the voluntary demobilization of the Nicaraguanresistance. The operation was undertaken throughout Honduras andNicaragua. By 29 June, some 22,000 resistance members had turned intheir weapons to ONUCA.

The civilian aspects of the demobilization - repatriation, relocationor resettlement - were the responsibility of the InternationalCommission for Support and Verification (CIAV), set up in September1989 by the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and of theOrganization of American States.

ONUCA remained in Central America, contributing to peace efforts inthe region, until January 1992.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 anInternational Conference "New Prospects of scientific andtechnological and production cooperation of Russia with foreignstates" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite arepresentative from your Ministry and two persons representingbusiness circles.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian, German andEnglish. For further information please contact Ms Golovina (tel.:456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №4


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


AFGHANISTAN

Following Soviet military intervention in late December 1979, 52Member States requested on 3 January 1980 an urgent meeting of theSecurity Council on the situation in Afghanistan. Following anegative vote from the Soviet Union on a draft resolution deploringthe intervention, the Security Council called an emergency specialsession of the General Assembly. The session in January deplored "therecent armed intervention in Afghanistan" and called for thewithdrawal of the foreign troops.

The Secretary-General launched a process of talks involvingAfghanistan, Pakistan, the Soviet Union, other neighbouring countriesand Security Council members. The talks, conducted by theSecretary-General's Personal Representative, sought to reach asettlement based on four elements: non-interference, return ofrefugees, withdrawal of foreign troops and international guarantees.

Eight years of intensive negotiations based on those elementsculminated in a comprehensive settlement in April 1988. A timetablewas established for the withdrawal of the foreign troops.

On 14 April 1988 at a ceremony at the United Nations office atGeneva, the Secretary-General presided over the signing of thesettlement, known as the Geneva Accords. The accords were signed bythe Foreign Ministers of Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as bythose of the Soviet Union and the United States as guarantor States.

In line with the Accords, the signatories requested that UnitedNations military personnel deployed in Afghanistan and Pakistan. TheUnited Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan(UNGOMAP) monitored the withdrawal of Soviet troops, which wascompleted in February 1989. UNGOMAP continued to monitor aspects ofthe Geneva Accords until March 1990.

In May 1988, in view of the gravity of the humanitarian situation,the Secretary General called for establishing a United Nations commonsystem to deal with the needs of the country. This led to theappointment of the Coordinator of the United Nations Humanitarian andEconomic Assistance Programmes relating to Afghanistan (UNOCA). InJune 1988, the Secretary-General issued an appeal for $1.1 billion ininternational assistance. At a pledging conference in New York inOctober, the Secretary-General and the Coordinator launched OperationSalam, an international effort for relief and rehabilitation inAfghanistan, for which UNOCA became responsible.

In 1989, UNOCA launched the first large-scale mine-clearanceprogramme in the world, which to date has cleared more than 42million square metres. More than 2.3 million people have receivedmine-awareness training.

With the continuing internal conflict in Afghanistan, the GeneralAssembly in November 1988 asked the Secretary-General to encourage acomprehensive political settlement with a view to establishing abroad-based government.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter ofInvitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №5


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


AFGHANISTAN

In May 1989, the Secretary-General appointed a PersonalRepresentative in Afghanistan and Pakistan, who has subsequently,through continuous contact with the various elements involved, soughtto find a peaceful solution to the conflict.

In May 1991, the Secretary-General outlined principles for apolitical solution, which included the need to preserve thesovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence andnon-aligned and Islamic character of the country; the recognition ofthe right of Afghans to determine their own form of government andchoose their economic, political and social system; and the need foran intra-Afghan dialogue leading to the establishment of abroad-based government.

On 16 April 1992, following a period of intensifying conflict, theGovernment of President Najibullah was replaced by a MajahidinGovernment, which subsequently proclaimed the establishment of anIslamic State. A few days later, the Secretary General travelled tothe region and met with the leaders of Pakistan and Iran. He statedthat peace and national unity were prerequisites for solicitingfinancial and humanitarian assistance from the internationalcommunity, and reaffirmed that the United Nations was ready to assistthe Afghan people in the reconstruction of their country.

On 24 April, an Agreement on forming an interim govern­ment wasreached among most of the Afghan parties, in Peshawar, Pakistan.These events led to the return of more than 1.5 million refugees,increasing the need for humanitarian assistance. In June, theSecretary-General issued a $197 million appeal for emergency reliefaid.

Serious fighting erupted in August, causing many casualties andlarge-scale damage to the capital city of Kabul, and forcing UnitedNations staff temporarily to evacuate the city. The Secretary-Generalappealed for restraint and the resumption of dialogue, and theSecurity Council issued a statement of concern.

In spite of a cease-fire, which permitted several United Nationsfact-finding and technical assistance missions to visit Kabul,fighting and rocketing of Kabul erupted again in December 1992. Thehostilities put severe strains on the relief effort. By the end ofthe year, about $ 87million had been received for humanitarianassistance required in 1992.

In January 1993, UNOCA became the United Nations Office forCoordination of Humanitarian Assistance to Afghanistan (UNOCHA),reflecting a new emphasis on emergency programmes. Throughout theyear, United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizationscontinued to provide humanitarian assistance. A new appeal waslaunched, and by the end of the year close to $70 million had beenpledged.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held inLondon from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is verythe traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importancewill be important.


Considering your great contribution to the development of the Russianadvertising business, we are confident that your contacts withleaders of the advertising industry from around the world will have apositive effect on the further development of the advertising marketin Russia.


Sincerely,


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


CYPRUS

Cyprus became independent in 1960, with a Constitution which wasintended to balance the interests of the island's Greek Cypriot andTurkish Cypriot communities. In August 1960, Cyprus, Greece, Turkeyand the United Kingdom entered into a treaty which guaranteed thebasic provisions of the Constitution and the territorial integrityand sovereignty of Cyprus.

Since the outbreak of fighting between the two communities inDecember 1963, the United Nations has sought to secure a peacefulsettlement. The Security Council met on 27 December 1963 to considera complaint by Cyprus charging intervention in its internal affairsand aggression by Turkey. Turkey maintained that Greek Cypriotleaders had tried for more than two years to nullify the rights ofthe Turkish Cypriot community and denied all charges of aggression.

In March 1964, the Security Council established the United NationsPeace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), to prevent fighting, helpmaintain law and order, and promote a return to normal conditions.

The efforts of the Secretary General and his Special Representativein Cyprus led, beginning in 1968, to talks between the twocommunities, which were held intermittently until early in 1974.

A coup d'йtatin Cyprus on 15 July 1974 by Greek Cypriot and Greek elementsfavouring union with Greece was followed by military intervention byTurkey, whose troops established Turkish Cypriot control over thenorthern part of the island.

The Security Council called for a cease-fire and laid the basis fornegotiations between Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom, whichwere held until mid-August, when they broke down. A further Turkishmilitary operation extended the area under Turkish Cypriot control inthe north. A cease-fire came into effect on 16 August.

Four days later, the Secretary-General appointed the United NationsHigh Commissioner for Refugees as Coordinator of United NationsHumanitarian Assistance for Cyprus. More than 200,000 people neededassistance as a result of the hostilities. The High Commissionercontinues to aid displaced persons, and UNFICYP provides support tothe humanitarian effort.

In November 1974, the General Assembly called on all States torespect the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence andnon-alignment of Cyprus. It urged the withdrawal of all foreign armedforces, a halt to foreign interference, and the return of refugees totheir homes. The Assembly stated that constitutional issues were tobe resolved by the two communities, and urged the continuation ofcontacts which were taking place between the two communities with thehelp of the Secretary-General.

These contacts broke off after the unilateral announcement by theTurkish Cypriot leadership in February 1975 that a part of the islandwould become the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus". InMarch, the Security Council expressed regret regarding this move, andstated that the decision did not prejudge the final politicalsettlement.

Talks started in April under the auspices of the Secretary-General.Agreement was reached that the Turkish Cypriots in the south of theisland would be allowed to proceed north with UNFICYP assistance, andthat a number of Greek Cypriots would be transferred to the north tobe reunited with their families. Greek Cypriots in the north would befree to go south or to remain.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister ofInternational Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you willaccord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


the security council

In 1990, the Security Council reiterated that it foresaw a solutionbased on the existence of one State comprising two communities, andthat the objective was a new Constitution regulating the relationsbetween the two communities on a federal, bicommunal and bi-zonalbasis. Both sides affirmed their commitment to the Council's views.

By March 1991, the Secretary-General was able to report to theSecurity Council that discussions held by his repre­sentativeswith both sides in Cyprus and a senior official of the Ministry ofForeign Affairs of Turkey in exploring a set of ideas for an overallframework agreement had been useful. He noted that the clarificationsthat had emerged should make it possible to bring the two sideswithin range of agreement, particularly under three of the eightheadings of an overall framework agreement, namely, OverallObjectives, Guiding Principles, and Security and Guarantees. TheSecretary-General felt that an agreement should be within reach if itwas possible to move forward on the issues of Territorial Adjustmentsand Displaced Persons.

The Secretary-General conferred separately with the leaders of thetwo communities in New York in January and March 1992. Reporting tothe Security Council in April, the Secretary-General stated that theset of ideas would offer a fair basis on which an agreement could beconcluded. A week later, the Council endorsed the set of ideas as anappropriate basis for reaching agreement.

In June, the Secretary-General began proximity talks in New York withthe two leaders. After a three-week intermission, the talks resumedin July. Joint meetings between the two leaders continued in New Yorkin October-November, focusing on the set of ideas.

At a joint meeting in March 1993, the two leaders agreed to resumenegotiations in May, using the set of ideas to reach an overallframework agreement. In April-May, the Secretary-General's DeputySpecial Representative undertook preparatory meetings in Cyprus. Bothleaders indicated their willingness to pursue agreement on 14proposed confidence-building measures. The most significant were thetransfer of the vacant city of Varosha to United Nationsadministration and its becoming a special area for bicommunal contactand commerce; and the reopening of Nicosia International Airport,under United Nations administration, for unhindered traffic with bothsides.

On the basis of these preparations, joint negotiations resumed in NewYork in May, chaired by the Secretary-General. The meetings recessedon 1 June to allow the Turkish Cypriot side to undertakeconsultations in Nicosia and Ankara. The purpose of theseconsultations was to promote acceptance of the Varosha/NicosiaInternational Airport package of confidence-building measures. It wasagreed that the joint meetings would resume in New York no later than14 June. However the leader of the Turkish Cypriot community did notpromote acceptance of the package and did not return to New York.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participatein the International Conference "10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow,18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign andinternational organizations, governmental, academic and businesscircles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy andcompetition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №8


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


United Nations Action for Peace

When the Government of President Samuel Doe was overthrown in 1990,civil war broke out, causing the breakdown of law and order inLiberia. In the following three years, the war claimed the lives ofbetween 100,000 and 150,000 civilians, with some 700,000 refugeesfleeing to neighbouring countries. Liberia remained divided: theInterim Government of National Unity administered the capital city ofMonrovia; the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) controllednine counties; and the United Liberation Movement of Liberia forDemocracy (ULIMO) controlled the remaining three counties.

From the outset of the conflict, the Economic Community of WestAfrican States (ECOWAS), a subregional organization made up of 16countries, took initiatives towards a political settlement. Theseincluded creating a Military Observer Group (ECOMOG) in August 1990,and mediating agreements which became the basis for the peace plan ofNovember 1990. On 30 October 1991, ECOWAS brokered the YamoussoukroIV Accord, which provided for the disarmament of warring factionsunder ECOMOG supervision, and the establishment of transitionalinstitutions to carry out free and fair elections.

The United Nations supported from the start the efforts of the ECOWASmember States. It also provided humanitarian assistance through itsagencies and programmes. The United Nations Special Coordinator'soffice opened in 1990 to respond to the needs of Liberians throughoutthe country. Arrangements were made to assist those who fled toneighbouring countries, mainly Cфte d'Ivoire, Guinea and SierraLeone.

To establish peace and stability in the country, the Security Councilon 19 November 1992 imposed a general and complete arms embargo onLiberia, and requested the Secretary-General to dispatch an envoy.The Secretary-General appointed a Special Representative for Liberia,who visited Liberia and eight other countries in the region.

In March 1993, the Secretary-General reported to the Security Councilthat the Special Representative's talks with the parties indicated aconsensus for a larger United Nations role in the search for peace.The Council asked the Secretary-General to discuss with ECOWAS andthe parties the contribution which the United Nations could make.

On 6 June 1993, nearly 600 Liberians, mainly people displaced by thewar, were killed in an armed attack near the Liberian town of Harbel.The Security Council condemned the killings and asked theSecretary-General to launch an investigation.

The investigation panel concluded that the killings had been carriedout by units of the Armed Forces of Liberia (one of the parties tothe conflict), and that NPFL, to which the act of violence hadinitially been attributed, had had no role in it. The panel addedthat this finding did not diminish the responsibility of NPFL, ULIMOand others alleged to have engaged in similar atrocities, andrecommended investigating such atrocities.

On 25 July 1993, after a three-day meeting in Cotonou, Benin, underthe co-chairmanship of the Secretary-General's SpecialRepresentative, the envoy of the Organization of African Unity (OAU)and the Executive Secretary of ECOWAS, the parties signed the CotonouPeace Agreement. The Agreement provided for a cease-fire, thedisarmament and demobilization of military units, a transitionalgovernment, and general and presidential elections. A" JointCease-fire Monitoring Committee was set up, comprising the threeLiberian parties, ECOMOG and the United Nations.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, whois a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate ifyou could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №9


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


United Nations Action for Peace

On 22 September, the Security Council established the United NationsObserver Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL), to assist in implementing thepeace agreement. Under the agreement, ECOMOG had the primaryresponsibility for implementation; UNOMIL would monitor and verifythe impartial application of the implementation procedures. UNOMILwas the first United Nations peace-keeping mission undertaken incooperation with a peace-keeping operation already set up by anotherorganization.

The task of UNOMIL comprised monitoring the cease-fire, the armsembargo and the disarmament and demobilization of combatants;assisting in humanitarian activities, including the return ofrefugees and displaced persons; and observing the election process,conducted by the transitional government.

In accordance with the Cotonou Agreement, ECOMOG was to be reinforcedby troops from countries outside West Africa. On the basis of anECOWAS appeal, the Secretary-General set up a Trust Fund to assist inthe deployment and maintenance of the ECOMOG troops. In September1993, the United States pledged $19.8 million to the Trust Fund, forthe deployment and maintenance of the additional troops and forcovering some maintenance costs of the existing troops. In January1994, battalions from Tanzania and Uganda were deployed to Liberia.

After months of stalemate, the Liberian National TransitionalGovernment (LNTG) was installed on 8 March 1994. Elections were to beheld in September. But the demobilization proceeded slowly, and cameto a halt with the emergence of two new armed factions andaccusations that both NPFL and ULIMO had resumed hostilities.Increased fighting forced the UNOMIL observers to move from many ofthe rural areas to the more secure Monrovia, since the authority ofthe LNTG could not be extended beyond the capital. Both the NPFL andULIMO experienced internal divisions, further adding to instability.The elections were postponed indefinitely.

In September, President Jerry Rawlings of Ghana, the ECOWAS Chairman,convened the NPFL, ULIMO and AFL for peace talks attended by the OAUand the United Nations at Akosombo, Ghana. The Akosombo Agreement,signed on 12 September, sought to reinforce and supplement theCotonou Agreement, recognized as the framework for peace. On 21December, all warring factions concluded in Accra, Ghana, a peaceagreement calling for a cessation of hostilities, the seating of anew transitional government, disarmament of combatants and theeventual holding of elections.

In April 1995, the Secretary-General reported to the Security Councilthat the peace process remained at an impasse. The Council urged theparties to install a transitional government, re-establish acease-fire and take steps to implement the Accra Agreement.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9thInternational Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9thInternational Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlinas a participant at our 9thInternational Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translationservice will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:уголовноеправо и криминология;
уголовно-исполнительноеправо)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


The United Nations: STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION

The Charter established six principal organs of the United Nations:

GENERAL ASSEMBLY

The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ. It is composedof representatives of all Member States, each of which has one vote.Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace andsecurity, admission of new Members and budgetary matters, require atwo-thirds majority. Decisions on other questions are reached by asimple majority.

Functions and powers

Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the General Assemblyinclude:

  • to consider and make recommendations on the principles ofcooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security,including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation ofarmaments;

  • to discuss any question relating to international peace and securityand, except where a dispute or situation is being discussed by theSecurity Council, to make recommendations on it;

  • to discuss and, with the same exception, make recommendations on anyquestion within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers andfunctions of any organ of the United Nations;

  • to initiate studies and make recommendations to promoteinternational political cooperation, the development andcodification of international law, the realization of human rightsand fundamental freedoms for all, and international collaboration ineconomic, social, cultural, educational and health fields;

  • to make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of anysituation, regardless of origin, which might impair friendlyrelations among nations;

  • to receive and consider reports from the Security Council and otherUnited Nations organs;

  • to consider and approve the United Nations budget and to apportionthe contributions among Members;

  • to elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, themembers of the Economic and Social Council and those members of theTrusteeship Council that are elected; to elect jointly with theSecurity Council the Judges of the International Court of Justice;and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, to appoint theSecretary-General.

Under the "Uniting for peace" resolution adopted by theGeneral Assembly in November 1950, the Assembly may take action ifthe Security Council, because of a lack of unanimity of its permanentmembers, fails to act in a case where there appears to be a threat tointernational peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression. TheAssembly is empowered to consider the matter immediately with a viewto making recommendations to Members for collective measures,including, in the case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression,the use of armed force when necessary to maintain or restoreinternational peace and security.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on TechnicalAssistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. TradingCommission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward thisdocument to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notifyMs. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Bestregards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №1


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


completionOF FINANCIAL

STATEMENTSAND THEIR PUBLICATION

Introduction

When a company has prepared its annual financial statements inaccordance with the provisions of the Act, the directors of thecompany are required to approve, sign and lay the financialstatements and reports before the company in general meeting. Aprivate company, however, may elect to dispense with laying itsfinancial statements and reports before the company in generalmeeting. The directors of the company are also required to deliverthe financial statements and reports to persons entitled to receivethem and to the Registrar of Companies. There are also rules thatcompanies have to comply with when they publish their financialstatements. In addition, there are provisions for the revision ofdefective financial statements or reports. These and otherrequirements are considered in more detail in this chapter.

Directors’duties

Preparation and approval of financial statements

The directors have a duty to prepare annual financial statements forthe company under section 226(1) of the Act, and this obligation is discussed in chapter 2.

The board of directors has to approve the company's financialstatements and they must be signed on behalf of the board by adirector of the company.

In addition, a director is required to sign, on behalf of the boardof directors, a copy of the company's balance sheet that is to bedelivered to the Registrar of Companies.

Every copy of the balance sheet that is laid before the company ingeneral meeting, or that is otherwise circulated, published orissued, should state the name of the person who signed the balancesheet on, behalf of the board.

In addition to the legal requirement, SSAP 17requires that the financial statements should disclose the date onwhich the board of directors approved the financial statements. Thedate of approval will normally be the date on which the board ofdirectors formally.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202)565-3500 fax(202) 565-3513

811 vermontavenue, N.W. washington,D.C. 20571

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №2


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


The system ofcorporation tax

Scope of the tax

Corporation tax ('CT') is charged on the profits (computed asdescribed in the next chapter) of a company for an accounting period.The term 'company' includes an unincorporated body, such as a club,but not a partnership.

A company's residence status determines whether or not it ischarge­able to CT in respect of the whole of its profits. If acompany is resident in the UK for CT purposes (as explained inchapter 10.1(a)), and this includes most companies incorporated inthe UK, it is chargeable to CT on all its sources of income, andchargeable gains, wherever arising and whether or not remitted tothis country.

A non resident company will, broadly, only be chargeable to CT on itsprofits derived from trading operations in the UK and chargeablegains arising from the disposal of UK assets used for suchoperations, although other income derived from sources in thiscountry will, subject to the terms of any relevant double tax treaty,be liable to income tax. It is a question of fact as to whether anon-resident is trading in the UK. Whilst the fact of contracts beingmade in the UK is important, probably of more importance is the placewhere the operations take place from which the trading profits insubstance arise; however, this is again subject to any relevantdouble tax treaty between the UK and the country of residence of theoverseas company.

2.2 Rates of corporation tax

(a)Rates

To enable companies to plan ahead, rates of CT are fixed annually, inadvance, for a financial year, from 1 April to the following 31March. Thus the Finance Act 1990 fixed the rate of CT for the periodfrom 1 April 1990 to 31 March 1991 at 35%.

If a company's accounting period straddles 31 March it is necessaryto apportion its profits on a time basis to ascertain the amountssubject to the particular rates of CT.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister of National Economy


28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visitto Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held inThesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate ifyou could find a few minutes in your dense business schedule and meetme and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation andassistance.


Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Minister

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №3


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


The requirements of both the Act and SSAP 17 willhe satisfied if the directors minute theirapproval of the financial statements at a hoard meeting and include,at the foot of the balance sheet, a note along the following lines:

The pages of the financial statements that are being approved shouldnormally include, where applicable, any supplementary accounts orother financial statements (such as a value added statement orcurrent cost information). The reason for this is that the directorsshould acknowledge their responsibility for .any such financialinformation that is presented.

Alternatively, a similar statement may be included in the directors'report (for example, see Table 88). But when this alternativepresentation is adopted, the Act still requires a director to signthe balance sheet of the company.

approvalOF ACCOUNTS

The accounts on pages 12 to 25 were approved on 11th April, 1989, bythe Board of Directors, who authorised two Directors to sign theaccounts on behalf of the Board.

The Act also requires the directors' report to be approved by theboard of directors and signed by one director or by the company'ssecretary. The approval and signing of directors' reports areconsidered further in chapter 20 paragraphs 20.42 to 20.44.

Where a parent company prepares consolidated financial statements inaccordance with the Act, it is not required to include its own profitand loss account in the group's consolidated financial statements(see further 'Manual of Accounting - volume II' chapter 4). In thissituation, the company's individual profit and loss account must beapproved by the board of directors and signed on behalf of the boardby a director of the company in accordance with section 233(1).


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Joe Smith

Director General

Fair Trade Commission

USA


Re: NewInformational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives


20 August 1999


Dear Mr Smith


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in theInternational Conference

"New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review andPerspectives".


This high-level International Conference will take place in London,8-9 November 1999. It will host participants from competitionauthorities representing foreign and international organizations,governmental, academic and business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are English and French.


We would highly appreciate your participation in this event.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


William Brandt, Minister

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №4


Task I.Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Presentation of financial statements at general meetings.

The directors have a duty to present the financial statements of thecompany to the shareholders each year at a general meeting of thecompany.

The financial statements do not necessarily have to be laid beforethe shareholders at the annual general meeting. Another generalmeeting will suffice. In practice, however, most companies do laytheir annual financial statements before the shareholders at theirannual general meeting. The financial statements presented at thatmeeting should include:

• The company's profit and loss account and balance sheet.

• The directors' report.

• The auditors' report.

• The company's consolidated financial statements (if thecompany has subsidiaries).

• The statement of source and application of funds (ifapplicable).

However, a private company may elect to dispense with laying itsfinancial statements and reports before the company in generalmeeting (see para 25.20).

Delivery of financial statements to the Registrar of Companies

Individual companies

The directors of the company also have a duty to send to theRegistrar of Companies a copy of the financial statements of thecompany (see also para 25.38). Where that copy of the financialstatements is not in English, a certified translation of thefinancial statements also has to be delivered to the Registrar ofCompanies


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

INTERNATIONAL& PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPT.

Athens, 29 December 1999


Mr. Alexey PROKOFIEV

Vice Minister


Subject: EOMMEX's data base


Dear Sir,


The Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises andHandicraft (EOMMEX) is the Public Body supporting the SME's in Greecesupervised by the Ministry of Development.


EOMMEX, is trying to enrich it's data base with all the existingnformation, in order to help the Greek SME's develop transnationalco-operations.


Therefore, we would very much appreciate if you would send us all theavailable information concerning the following topics :


1. The existing legislation on foreign investment.

2. The incentives that could attract foreign investments (e.g.current tax system e.t.c.).


We would like to thank you in advance for your kind co-operation.


Sincerely yours,

Kl. Stavrakakis Director

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №5


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Where a company isexempt from the requirements to prepare consolidated financialstatements, a copy of the ultimate parent company's financialstatements must be appended to the company's financial statementsdelivered to the Registrar of Companies. This requirement applieswhere the company is itself a wholly-owned subsidiary of a EC parentor the EC parent holds more than 50 per cent of the shares in thecompany and no notice has been served on the company to prepareconsolidated financial statements. If the EC parent does not prepareits financial statements in English, a certified translation of theEC parent's financial statements into English must be appended (secfurther 'Manual of accounting -volume 'H' chapter 2).

Subsidiariesexcluded from consolidation

Special rules apply where a parent company has a subsidiaryundertaking which is excluded from consolidation under section 229(4)on the grounds that its activities are different from those of therest of the group, and the subsidiary is either a body corporateincorporated outside Great Britain without an established place ofbusiness in Great Britain or an unincorporated undertaking. Theseprovisions are further explained in 'Manual of Accounting - volumeII' chapter 3.

A copy of the excluded undertaking's latest individual financialstatements and, if it is a parent, its latest consolidated financialstatements, should he appended to the company's annual financialstatements delivered to the Registrar of Companies. A copy of the'auditors' report should also he appended if the financial statementsare required by law to be audited. Other requirements that must becomplied with are as follows:

• The financial statements must be for a period ending not morethan 12 months before the end of the financial year for which theparent company financial statements are made up.

• If any document required to be appended is in a languageother than English, a certified translation of that document shouldaccompany it.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:


It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.


Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.

Sincerely.

TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №6


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


As discussed in chapter 20 paragraphs 20.6 to 20.10, the directors'report must give details of any significant events that occur betweenthe end of the financial year and the dale on which the directorsapprove the financial statements. SSAP 17 contains a similarrequirement.

SSAP 17 says that it relates only to those eventsthat occur before the date on which the directors approve thefinancial statements. However, the standard goes on to say that, "If(events occurring after that dale) are material the directors slould consider publishing the relevant information so that users' offinancial statements are not misled".[SSAP 17 para 4]. Also, if the company is either listed on TheInternal ional Stock Exchange or traded on the USM, TheInternational Stock Exchange's Continuing Obligations or the USM'sGeneral Undertaking (as appropriate) require the company to informthe Quotations Department of The International Stock Exchange of anysignificant events that occur at any time that affect the company.[CO 5, GU 1].

If the auditors become aware of any significant event that hasoccurred between the date on which the directors approve thefinancial statements and the dale of the relevant general meeting,they should consider whether they should advise the company'sdirectors to disclose that event or exercise their rights to speak atthe meeting.

Personsentitled to receive the financial statements

Every member of the company, every debenture holder of the company,and every person who is entitled to receive notice of generalmeetings is entitled to receive a copy of the annual financialstatements. A copy must be sent to them not less that 21 days beforethe date of the meeting at which the financial statements are to bepresented. [Sec 238(1)].

A copy must also be given to the company's auditors. (Sec 390(1)]. Inaddition, the company's bankers may require that they should receivecopies of the company's financial statements, and this requirementcould he an enforceable term of either a loan agreement or a facilityagreement.

In addition to the right that a member has to be sent a copy of theannual financial statements (as mentioned in para 25.31), everybalance sheet date is disclosed in the financial statements), theRegistrar of Companies will accept, for filing, a UK company'sfinancial statements that have been prepared in a foreign currency.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Der President 10965BERLIN

des Bundeskartellamtes


18 December 1998


Minister

Gennadiy Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9thInternational Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin, the venue ofour last conference.


The subject of the 9thInternational Conference on Competition is:

Mega-mergers–


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlinas a participant at our 9thInternational Conference on Competition. As in previous conferences,a simultaneous translation will be in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,

Wolf

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №7


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


A public company is incorporated on 1st August 1989, and its firstaccounting reference period ends on 31st December 1990 (that is, 17months later). The company must deliver its financial statements tothe Registrar of Companies by 31st March 1991. This is because theperiod allowed is the later of three months after the end of theaccounting reference period, that is 31st March 1991 and seven monthsfrom the first anniversary of the inception of the company, that is28th February 1991.

If the directors of a company that carries on part of its businessoverseas or has interests overseas (that is, the business is carriedon outside the UK, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man) havenotified the Registrar of Companies of this business, or of theinterests, before the end of the period allowed for laying anddelivering financial statements (see paras 25.39 and 25.41), thenthey may claim an extension to the period allowed for filing. Thisextension is for a further three months. [Sec 244(3)].

A company may shorten its accounting reference period by notifyingthe Registrar of Companies. Section 225 of the Act sets out theprocedures a company must follow to shorten its accounting referenceperiod (see chapter 2 para 2.38). Where a company takes advantage ofsection 225 and shortens its accounting reference period, the periodit is allowed for filing its financial statements dial cover thisshortened period will be the longer of:

• The period allowed as described in paragraphs 25.39 and 25.41above.

• Three months after the date on which the notice was given tothe Registrar of Companies to change the accounting reference date.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

H.E.

Mr. Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Dear Mr. Bogachev,


I want to thank you for your participation in thePolitical and Economic LeadersSummit of 7-8 February, inThessaloniki, in the frame of ASIA FORUM 2000.


You will soon receive a short report with the conclusions. We proceedalso to the publication of the Proceedings.


We have started the preparations for the BusinessMeeting and Exhibition of 23-28 May.We hope to have your support in motivating enterprises andbusinessmen to participate in the event.


We shall ask your active involvement in the May event very soon.


Thanking you once again, I remain


Sincerely yours

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №8


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Probably the main tax considerations when raising finance are toensure that the interest is tax deductible in the country where taxrates are highest (profits permitting) and, where loans are raised inthe capital markets, to ensure the lender receives gross interest.Overseas exchange control regulations must also be borne in mind.

Depending on how overseas tax rates compare with those in the UK,consideration should be given to borrowing in the UK and onlending athigher rates of interest, or alternatively borrowing in the UK andusing the funds to subscribe for shares in the overseas company.Sometimes it may be sensible for the overseas company to borrowdirect from the third party lender. However, local management may notbe happy if they are loaded with too much debt, especially if thisresults in the creation or augmentation of losses; on the other handinterest-free loans to overseas subsidiaries suffer from thedisadvantage referred to in 10.3 above.

The following are some of the other factors which should be takeninto account in deciding the method of financing overseas companies:

(a) loan interest is often allowed as a deduction from profits foroverseas tax purposes (subject to the satisfaction of any debt/equity ratio test under the overseas country's 'thin capitalisation'rules), whereas dividends are not;

(h) in many cases there is a withholding tax on dividends, but oftennot on interest;

(c) the raising of finance locally may be advisable from thestandpoint of local political considerations;

(d) loan finance has the advantage of flexibility (e.g. monies can beremitted to the UK by way of loan repayments and debt can beconverted into equity);

(e) it is sometimes easier, from a local exchange control viewpoint,to remit interest than dividends;

(f) the country where the burden of any exchange risk on foreigncurrency borrowings should, lie should be considered; and

(g) it may be advisable in some cases for the UK parent company toacquire and lease (at an arm's length rental) trading assets to anoverseas subsidiary. Normally capital allowances of 10% on a writingdown basis would be available for plant and machinery leased abroadon this basis.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000


VIA FEDEX


Mr. Alexander Ivanov

President

MICEX


Moscow

RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the proposed Joint Statement on TechnicalAssistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Commodity FuturesTrading Commission ("CFTC").


We understand that your office will undertake to forward thisdocument to Chairman Parkov.


If the Russian finds the proposal acceptable, we should notify Ms.Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Bestregards.


Sincerely yours,


Jeffrey A. Burt

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №9


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


The requirements of boththe Act and SSAP 17 will he satisfied if the directors minute theirapproval of the financial statements at a hoard meeting and include,at the foot of the balance sheet, a note along the following lines:

The pages of the financial statements that are being approved shouldnormally include, where applicable, any supplementary accounts orother financial statements (such as a value added statement orcurrent cost information). The reason for this is that the directorsshould acknowledge their responsibility for .any such financialinformation that is presented.

Alternatively, a similar statement may be included in the directors'report (for example, see Table 88). But when this alternativepresentation is adopted, the Act still requires a director to signthe balance sheet of the company.

approvalOF ACCOUNTS

The accounts on pages 12 to 25 were approved on 11th April, 1989, bythe Board of Directors, who authorised two Directors to sign theaccounts on behalf of the Board.

The Act also requires the directors' report to be approved by theboard of directors and signed by one director or by the company'ssecretary. The approval and signing of directors' reports areconsidered further in chapter 20 paragraphs 20.42 to 20.44.

Where a parent company prepares consolidated financial statements inaccordance with the Act, it is not required to include its own profitand loss account in the group's consolidated financial statements(see further 'Manual of Accounting - volume II' chapter 4). In thissituation, the company's individual profit and loss account must beapproved by the board of directors and signed on behalf of the boardby a director of the company in accordance with section 233(1).


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

athens travel service

2-4 Alopekis sir., 10675 Alhens

Tel: 00301-33 3 5254*Fax:00301-333 5256


Date: 07/08/00

To: Mr A.Egorov

From: C.Vakali

Ref: Eommex group20/8-03/9/00


With reference to the above group, we would like to inform you withthe following.

SCHEDULE

OA 352 20/8 Moscow-Athens 1450-1725

OA 351 03/9 Athens-Moscow 0930-1355

You are kindly requested not to issue tickets for those nottravelling. All issued unused tickets must be delivered to ourrepresentative at the airport otherwise you will be charged. Uponyour arrival at the Athens airport you will be met bv ourrepresentative, holding a sign:


EOMMEX

ATHENS TRAVEL SERVICE


We would like to know which person will be incharge as head of the group during their stay in Greece.

The group will stay at the Training Center of the National Bank.

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:бухгалтерскийучет; статистика)


билет №10


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


As discussed in chapter 20 paragraphs 20.6 to 20.10, the directors'report must give details of any significant events that occur betweenthe end of the financial year and the dale on which the directorsapprove the financial statements. SSAP 17 contains a similarrequirement.

SSAP 17 says that it relates only to those eventsthat occur before the date on which the directors approve thefinancial statements. However, the standard goes on to say that, "If(events occurring after that dale) are material the directors slould consider publishing the relevant information so that users' offinancial statements are not misled".[SSAP 17 para 4]. Also, if the company is either listed on TheInternal ional Stock Exchange or traded on the USM, TheInternational Stock Exchange's Continuing Obligations or the USM'sGeneral Undertaking (as appropriate) require the company to informthe Quotations Department of The International Stock Exchange of anysignificant events that occur at any time that affect the company.[CO 5, GU 1].

If the auditors become aware of any significant event that hasoccurred between the date on which the directors approve thefinancial statements and the dale of the relevant general meeting,they should consider whether they should advise the company'sdirectors to disclose that event or exercise their rights to speak atthe meeting.

Persons entitled to receive the financial statements

Every member of the company, every debenture holder of the company,and every person who is entitled to receive notice of generalmeetings is entitled to receive a copy of the annual financialstatements. A copy must be sent to them not less that 21 days beforethe date of the meeting at which the financial statements are to bepresented. [Sec 238(1)].

A copy must also be given to the company's auditors. (Sec 390(1)]. Inaddition, the company's bankers may require that they should receivecopies of the company's financial statements, and this requirementcould he an enforceable term of either a loan agreement or a facilityagreement.

In addition to the right that a member has to be sent a copy of theannual financial statements (as mentioned in para 25.31), everybalance sheet date is disclosed in the financial statements), theRegistrar of Companies will accept, for filing, a UK company'sfinancial statements that have been prepared in a foreign currency.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202)565-3500 fax(202) 565-3513

811 vermontavenue, N.W. washington,D.C. 20571

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №1


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Ideal-typesare conceptual abstractions that we employ in trying to get to gripswith the complexities of the social world. Weber properly points outthat we cannot grasp social phenomena in their totality. Patterns ofbehaviour and institutional forms like capitalism, or Protestantism,or bureaucracy, are each composed of a large number of interconnectedelements, both normative and struc­tural. In order to comprehendany such institution or social formation it is necessary to reduce itto its core components. We do this by singling out and accentuatingthe central or basic features of the insti­tution in question andsuppressing or downgrading those features that could be consideredmarginal to it. This means that our ideal-type of capitalism, or thebourgeois revolution, or whatever, is unlikely to be an accuraterepresentation of the real thing. It is almost bound to be a somewhatslanted or exaggerated version rather in the way that a cartoonist'scaricature is an exaggerated version of a still recognizable face.Thus, an ideal-type of the bourgeois revolution will not conformexactly to the features of any one particular bourgeois revolution;rather, it will be a kind of distillation of the principal featuresthat are characteristic of these revolution in general: in otherwords, ideal-types only approximate to social reality, they do notand cannot mirror it faithfully.

Situations change

Sometimes, theexperience of other people can furnish us with facts we need, but wemust remember that situation is not situation, and what works or doesnot work in one place may turn out differently somewhere else - or atanother time. We must learn to observe what particular kinds ofmistakes in thinking we make most often. Is it from not seeking theadvice of others? Or is it from not using adequately our ownexperi­ences and our own ideas? Is it from not testing our ideasin a small way before relying upon them in a large way? Each one ofus must act as his own judge in finding out his own particularweakness in thinking.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visitto Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held inThesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate ifyou could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet meand discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №2


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Thepointthat Weber is touching upon here is that it is illusory to imaginethat we can somehow capture the 'real essence' of social reality.Social reality does not possess a real essence because it is alwayscapable of being constructed or represented in various differentways. What counts as social reality depends pretty much upon theconceptual apparatus through which we view it in the first place.Weber's stance on this is, again, noticeably different from that ofMarx and Durkheim. Marx was inclined to distinguish between the mereappearances of reality and the essence of reality. Surface realitywas never quite the same as the deeper, underlying reality. Hence hiscelebrated dictum that "…allscience would be superfluousif the outward appearance and the essence of tilings directlycoincided." As far as Marx is con­cerned there is someultimate and irreducible level of reality that is not a mere artefactof our own conceptual making. Although there might be different waysof depicting capitalism, the state, and so forth, these differentconstructs were certainly not to be granted equal validity. Therewere false constructions and true constructions, bourgeois orideological conceptions and scientific conceptions.

Some thoughts oncreativity

Any individual canacquire the tools of a trade. As he learns to use these tools hebecomes technically competent. It is, however, only when hecontributes of himself that the individ­ual becomes more than atechnician. This giving of oneself is essentially what we mean bycreativity.

The ability tocreate exists in every individual in varying degree and according toinclination. The domains where one may exert his effort aresufficiently varied to offer each individ­ual an opportunity toexhibit originality. The growth of mental potentialities throughexperimentation with the creative proc­ess broadens theindividual's capacity of original contribution.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №3


Task I. Translate from Englishinto Russian in writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


Durkheim's view isbroadly similar. In his analysis of collective behaviour he is notproposing one possible interpretation among others; he is claiming toreveal the very stuff of social life. In reducing religion to its'elementary forms' he is seeking to lay bare the substance ofsupernatural belief, the substance that is found in all religionsfrom the simplest to the most complex. Durkheim's standard workingassumption is that the quintessential nature of any social phenomenoncan be identified by showing what is common to its variousmanifes­tations. The task is to uncover what is universal to allreligions, to all systems of morality, to all legal institutions, andso on. What is it that apparently disparate things actually share incommon? For Durkheim the point of the exercise is not to set upideal-type constructs that are only weak approximations of socialreality, but to penetrate to the fundamental core of reality.

Seen from Weber'sangle, even if it were possible to pinpoint some quintessentialsubstance of religion or morality or law, this would still leave allthe interesting questions unanswered. In the case of religion, forexample, it would still be necessary to show how the doctrinalexpressions of the sacred varied from one religion to another. ForDurkheim, "The details of dogmas and rites are secondary".

Miracles DoHappen

G. K. Chesterton

Themost incredible thing about miracles is that they hap­pen. A fewclouds in heaven do come together into the staring shape of one humaneye. A tree does stand up in the landscape of a doubtful journey inthe exact and elaborate shape of a note of interrogation. I have seenboth these things myself within the last few days. Nelson does die inthe instant of victory; and a man named Williams does quiteaccidentally murder a man named Williamson; it sounds like a sort ofinfanticide. In short, there is in life an element of elfincoincidence which people reckoning on the prosaic way perpetuallymiss. As it has been well expressed in the paradox of Рое,wisdom should reckon on the unforeseen.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 anInternational Conference "New Prospects of scientific andtechnological and production cooperation of Russia with foreignstates" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite arepresentative from your Ministry and two persons representingbusiness circles.


The working languages of the Conference areRussian, German and English. For further information please contactMs Golovina (tel.: 456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №4


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Whateverthecontent of the ideal-type ... it has only one function in anempirical investigation. Its function is the comparison withempirical reality in order to establish its divergencies orsimilarities . . . and to understand and explain them causally.

However, Weber neverreally makes clear what kind of explanatory pay-off this procedureactually yields. Merely to show that there is indeed a lack ofcorrespondence between ideal-type and empirical reality is not adiscovery guaranteed to set the pulse racing. In the first place,there is almost bound to be such lack of fit, given the way thatideal-types are constructed. If we are required to select a few keycomponents from among the possible range of components, and to givethese what Weber calls a "one-sided accentuation", then itfollows that almost any empirical case will diverge from the puretype. More­over, it is by no means obvious what possible causalinferences could be drawn from this fact. Indeed, the very notion ofcausality seems out of place here. Any divergences between ideal-typeand reality are a direct function of the manner in which theideal-type was originally con­structed. Had we chosen to selectand emphasize a different set of elements we should have discovered adifferent set of discrepancies. How could we be sure that thediscrepancies we found were not 'caused' simply by the sloppiness ofour original construct?

Material research

Material research isnot new, but the interdisciplinary as­pects of materials researchnow are receiving considerable emphasis. It has been only sincechemists, physicists, metallurgists, ceramicists, polymer chemists,and other scientists began studying the detailed structure andproperties of materials that the fundamental relationships underlyingbasic materials phe­nomena have begun to be understood.

It was not untilrecently that it has become increasingly evident that the rapidexploitation of new discoveries and their incorporation into thetechnology depends largely on the com­bined effects of researchscientists and engineers drawn from several different disciplines.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №5


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Whatcountsas a social fact is very much determined by the moral spectaclesthrough which we view the world. Weber is sca­thingly dismissiveof those theorists who urge us to evacuate our minds of allpresuppositions in order that we might perceive social reality in allits purity. This was a doctrine that even Durkheim, of all people,occasionally espoused. In his own treatise on method, Durkheim saysthat when investigating social life "All preconceptions must beeradi­cated. [This is] ... the basis of all scientific method."His repeated emphasis on the need to treat social facts as 'things'also implies a sturdy, no-nonsense approach to the problem.

For Weber, on theother hand, since the eradication of all pre­conceptions was nothumanly possible, the social construction of facts was extremelyproblematic. Because social facts only existed by virtue of theconcepts employed to define and organise them, we could in effectbring new facts into being and dispose of others simply by alteringour conceptual frame of reference. Entities like social classes, forexample, could be abolished at a single conceptual stroke. Now yousee them, now you don't.

Weber's insistencethat all theoretical constructs are shot through with biases of onekind or another is not easy to reconcile with the explanatory claimshe makes on behalf of ideal-types.

The overwhelmingproblems of today are forcing the disciplines to seek advice from oneanother.

Not only does theblending of various disciplines result in enhanced research, butmodern materials systems themselves often are created from theintegration of two or more materials. These systems do result in newmaterials having properties not previously available.

It is the lack ofmaterials that are adequate to meet the needs imposed on them thatmany of the holding problems in our technological development stemfrom.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister ofInternational Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you willaccord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №6


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Suppose,for example, we wished to construct an ideal type of 'democracy'. Onepossibility would be to highlight features such as free elections,competing political parties, legal right of opposition, theseparation of powers, and the guarantee of civil liberties. Usingthis as our ideal-type of democracy, we would find that communist orsocialist systems diverged considerably from it. Western politicalsystems, by contrast, would show a much closer approximation to it.On that basis, we could conclude that western capitalist systems weremore democratic than socialist systems. However, it would be quitefeasible to construct an ideal-type of democracy that gave one-sidedemphasis to a different set of criteria. The key features could beregarded as the absence of a property-owning or exploiting class, andthe absence of those gross inequalities of wealth that effectivelyconcentrate power in the hands of the few at the expense of the many,notwithstanding the latter's purely formal liberties and rights.Measured against this conceptual yardstick, western capitalist stateswould tend to show greater divergence from the pure type than manysocialist states. Socialist states could thus be judged moredemocratic. Because both constructs are morally slanted, andinevitably so, it is hard to see how either of them could claimexplanatory superiority over the other. This is the problem with allideal-types.

Design fordecision

Throughoutthis book I must have been critical of people who produce beautifulthoughts with little or no data behind them. Some readers may havefelt that the decision-maker is a cold-hearted, even grim, method ofmaking decisions. These readers might admit that a machine may be allright for making the scientific decisions or even commercialdecisions, but they may have felt that Statistical Decision had noplace in their world, that it is meaningless insofar as personal,governmental, or international decisions are concerned.

I disagree with thispoint of view. I think that Statistical Decision must have played auseful role in a wider class of decisions which have a directinfluence on all of us.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held inLondon from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is verythe traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importancewill be important.


Considering your great contribution to the development of the Russianadvertising business, we are confident that your contacts withleaders of the advertising industry from around the world will have apositive effect on the further development of the advertising marketin Russia.


Sincerely,

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №7


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Itis atleast arguable that ideal-types tell us less about social realitythan about the inbuilt preconceptions of the investigator. Webervirtually says this much himself. To pit one version of realityagainst another involves, ultimately, a conflict of moralities.

Itmust be recognized that general views of life and the universe cannever be the products of increasing empirical knowledge, and that thehighest ideals, which move us most forcefully, are always formed onlyin the struggle with other ideals which are just as sacred to othersas ours are to us.

This being the case,Weber would not seem to be the most likely candidate to champion thecause of 'value-free' social theory. How could sociology ever attainneutrality if its operational tools were saturated with theobserver's own values and preconceptions? Given his views on thestatus of knowledge as an inescapably social and moral construct, itis at first blush puzzling that Weber should have raised such loudand insistent demands for the exclusion of value-judgements fromsociological observations.

The puzzle is onlypartly resolved when it becomes apparent that Weber's demands on thisscore were rather modest and limited in scope. All he really askedwas that scholars should refrain from openly pro­claiming theirpersonal views on matters of social fact.

Icertainly do not consider Statistical Decision to be a panacea. It isone method among many methods of reaching decisions. It is notnecessarily the best method; there are situations in which intuitiveprocedures lead to more effective decisions than any existingDecision-Maker. In fact,I think that most people must have already used many of theprinciples in making their decisions. You may have felt that suchcon­cepts as mathematical expectations were new and unfamiliar.However, I am sure that you have had to make decisions on the basisof expectations, when you have had to combine probabilities anddesirabilities (though you may not have used these names).


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participatein the International Conference "10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow,18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign andinternational organizations, governmental, academic and businesscircles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy andcompetition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №8


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


ThequestionWeber never really faced up to was whether ethical neutrality couldbe violated unwittingly, despite the sociologist's willingness toabstain from openly proclaiming his own views. His belief in thecapacity of social scientists to "distinguish between empiri­calknowledge and value judgements" is not dissimilar to the beliefof newspaper editors in their capacity to distinguish between newsand comment. In presenting the news they stick scrupulously to thefacts, recording events without bias or favour. Judgement on thefacts is reserved for the editorial columns. However, there nowappears to be a small army of sociologists — the 'mediatheorists' — whose principal activity is to pour cold water onthis notion. They tell us that what counts as 'news' is in fact theend product of a very selective social process. In recording someevents and suppressing others, as well as in the moral vocabularyemployed in the manufacture of news, certain biases andpreconceptions are quietly at work. What purports to be an impartialrecitation of factual events is thus a thoroughly loadedpresentation. The biases may operate in a more subtle andsubterranean fashion than they do in the case of editorial comment,but that makes them all the more effective.

Only God knowsall

So far as I know, nohuman being knows all about anything. Can you think of anything aboutwhich your knowledge is complete? Large or small, old or new. Can youanswer every question about an automobile or a grain of sand, apencil or an inch of thread, or a human being?

Supposeyou wanted to devote your lifetime to the study of a single leadpencil. Could you learn allaboutit? You might pick out a nice yellow one with a rubber eraser. Youcould then sit down and try to describe it as thoroughly as possible,giving exact measurements and telling all you could about itsconstruction and its uses. But to know everything about the pencil,you would have to learn about the wood and the individual tree fromwhich it was made.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, whois a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate ifyou could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №9


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Instead of bureaucraticimpartiality . . . based on the abstract validity of one objectivelaw for all ... the opposite principle prevails. Practicallyeverything depends explicitly upon personal considerations: upon theattitude toward the concrete applicant and his concrete request andupon purely personal connections, favours, promises and privileges.

Weber contrasts patrimonialism not only with bureaucracy but withanother important sub-type of traditional domination —feudalism. Feudalism differed from patrimonialism in that therelationship between a lord and his vassals was a freely contractualone. The vassal swore fealty to his Lord and was no mere dependent.In addition, "Vassalage does not diminish the honour and statusof the vassal; on the contrary, it can augment his honour ...".The vassal identifies his fortune with that of his lord, and in theglory of his master he sees the reflection of himself. Mostimportantly, the vassal's claim to legitimacy vis-a-vis his own localsubjects and dependents flowed directly from the legitimacy of thefeudal lord.

The fact that the lord-vassal relationship was a reciprocal andcontractual affair meant that rights and obligations were far moreformalized under feudalism than under patrimonialism.

In order to assure that the research results are carried out asintended, it is necessary to develop a detailed plan for theirimplementation. This need is generally acknowledged where the actionultimately to be taken is to be performed by a computer. In such asituation the researcher recognizes his responsibility for developinga program for the computer. What is not so well recognized is thatalmost as detailed a program is required for human operators. It isnecessary to specify exactly who is to do what, when they are to doit, and how. The who and when can normally be shown on a flow chartwhich indicates the way that the relevant operations are to beconducted.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9thInternational Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9thInternational Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlinas a participant at our 9thInternational Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translationservice will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:онтологияи теория познания)


билет №10


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Whatcounts as a social fact is very much determined by the moralspectacles through which we view the world. Weber is sca­thinglydismissiveof those theorists who urge us to evacuate our minds of allpresuppositions in order that we might perceive social reality in allits purity. This was a doctrine that even Durkheim, of all people,occasionally espoused. In his own treatise on method, Durkheim saysthat when investigating social life "All preconceptions must beeradi­cated. [This is] ... the basis of all scientific method."His repeated emphasis on the need to treat social facts as 'things'also implies a sturdy, no-nonsense approach to the problem.

For Weber, on theother hand, since the eradication of all pre­conceptions was nothumanly possible, the social construction of facts was extremelyproblematic. Because social facts only existed by virtue of theconcepts employed to define and organise them, we could in effectbring new facts into being and dispose of others simply by alteringour conceptual frame of reference. Entities like social classes, forexample, could be abolished at a single conceptual stroke. Now yousee them, now you don't.

Weber's insistencethat all theoretical constructs are shot through with biases of onekind or another is not easy to reconcile with the explanatory claimshe makes on behalf of ideal-types.

The overwhelmingproblems of today are forcing the disciplines to seek advice from oneanother.

Not only does theblending of various disciplines result in enhanced research, butmodern materials systems themselves often are created from theintegration of two or more materials. These systems do result in newmaterials having properties not previously available.

It is the lack ofmaterials that are adequate to meet the needs imposed on them thatmany of the holding problems in our technological development stemfrom.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on TechnicalAssistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. TradingCommission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward thisdocument to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notifyMs. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Bestregards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt

Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №1


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Itis often pointed out that the social sciences are "inexact"sciences, as compared with the "exact" physical sciences.It is al­so sometimes indicated that management is perhaps themost inexact of the social sciences. It is true that the socialsciences, and management in particular, deal with complex phenomenaabout which too little is known. It is true, likewise, that thestructure and behavior of the atom are far less complex than thestructure and be­havior of groups of people, including both thoseinside and those outside an enterprise.

Butwe should not forget that even in the most exact of the exactsciences - physiсs - there are areas where scientific knowledgedoes not exist now and must be developed through speculation andhypothesis. As much as is known of bridge mechanics, bridges stillfail as a result of such things as vibrations set up from windcurrents. And as we move from the longer-known areas of physics intothe biological sciences, we mind that areas of exactness tend todiminish.

Since virtually allareas of knowledge have tremendous expanses of the unknown, peopleworking in the social sciences should not be defeatist. A scientificapproach to management cannot wait until an exact science ofmanagement is developed. Had the physical and biological sciencesthus waited, we might be living in caves.

Progress andProblems.

Great progress hasbeen made in industry, science and medi­cine. Widespreadmechanization, the introduction of com­pletely automated linesand computerized management are advancing in every sphere of oureconomy. New remote areas in the North, beyond the Polar Circle, inthe Far East and Siberia are being opened up and developed. To taptheir huge natural resources, pipelines and electric power stations,new railroads and highways are being built. The vast territory beyondthe Urals produces most of the oil, gas, coal and minerals extractedin Russia. From the deposits in Western Siberia, oil and gas arepiped to the European part of the country and, even farther, tocountries of Eastern and Western Europe.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202)565-3500 fax(202) 565-3513

811 vermontavenue, N.W. washington,D.C. 20571


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №2


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Perhapsthe most prominent single element in modern scienti­ficmanagement is the task idea. The work of everyworkman is fully planned out by the management at least one day inadvance, and each man receives in most cases complete writteninstructions, descri­bing in detail the task which he is toaccomplish, as well as the means to be used in doing the work. Andthe work planned in advance in this way constitutes a task which isto be solved, as explained above, not by the workman alone, but inalmost all cases by the joint effort of the workman and themanagement. This taskspecifies not only what is to be done but how it is to be done andthe exact time allowed for doing it. And whenever the workmansucceeds in doing his task right, and within the time limitspecified, he recei­ves an addition of from 30 per centto 100 per cent to his огdinary wages. These tasks arecarefully planned, so that both good and careful work are called forin their performance, but it should be distinctly understood that inno case is the workman called upon to work at a place which would beinjurious to his health. The task is always so regulated that the manwho is well suited to his job will thrive while working at this rateduring a long term of years and grow happier and more prosperous,instead of being overworked. Scientific management consists verylargely in preparing for and carrying out these tasks.

It cannot be denied,however, that the price for rapid industrial development is veryhigh: natural resources are exhausted, the ecological balance of theplanet is disturbed, some species of flora and fauna disappear.Progress can be blamed for all these environmental problems.

To preserve Natureand keep the air and water clean, strict control is necessary. InRussia numerous purifying systems for treatment of industrial wasteshave been installed; measures have been taken to protect rivers andseas from oil wastes. Wildlife reservations, models of undisturbednature, have developed all over the country.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

athens travel service

2-4 Alopekis sir., 10675 Alhens

Tel: 00301-33 3 5254*Fax:00301-333 5256


Date: 07/08/00

To: Mr A.Egorov

From: C.Vakali

Ref: Eommex group20/8-03/9/00


With reference to the above group, we would like to inform you withthe following.

SCHEDULE

OA 352 20/8 Moscow-Athens 1450-1725

OA 351 03/9 Athens-Moscow 0930-1355

You are kindly requested not to issue tickets for those nottravelling. All issued unused tickets must be delivered to ourrepresentative at the airport otherwise you will be charged. Uponyour arrival at the Athens airport you will be met bv ourrepresentative, holding a sign:


EOMMEX

ATHENS TRAVEL SERVICE


We would like to know which person will be in charge as head of thegroup during their stay in Greece.

The group will stay at the Training Center of the National Bank.


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №3


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Perhapsthe mostimportant law belonging to this class, in its relation to scientificmanagement, is the effect which the task idea has upon the efficiencyof the workman. This, in fact, has become such an important elementof the mechanism of scientific management, that by a great number ofpeople scientific management has come to be known as "taskmanagement".

There is absolutelynothing new in the task idea. Each one of us will remember that inhis own case this idea was applied with good results in hisschool-boy days. No efficient teacher would think of giving a classof students an indefinite lesson to learn.

Eachday a definite, clear-cut task is set by the teacher beforeeach scholar, stating that he must learn just so much of thesub­ject; and it is only by this means that proper, systematicprogress can be made by the students. The average boy would go veryslowly if, instead of being given a task, he were told to do as muchas he could. All of us are grown-up children, and it is equally truethat the average workman will work with the greatest satisfaction,both to himself and to his employer, when he is given each day adefinite task which he is to perform in a given time, and whichconstitutes a proper day's work for a good workman. This furnishesthe workman with a clear-cut standard, by which he can throughout theday mea­sure his own progress, and the accomplishment of whichaffords him the greatest satisfaction.

What Is aManager?

A number ofdifferent terms are used for «manager», including«director», «administrator» and «president».The term «manager» is used more frequently inprofit-making organizations, while the others are used more widely ingovernment and non-profit orga­nizations such as universities,hospitals and social work agencies.

What, then, is amanager?

When usedcollectively, the term "management" refers to those peoplewho are responsible for making and carrying out de­cisions withinthe system.

An individualmanager is a person who directly supervises people in anorganization.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000


VIA FEDEX


Mr. Alexander Ivanov

President

MICEX


Moscow

RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the proposed Joint Statement on TechnicalAssistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. Commodity FuturesTrading Commission ("CFTC").


We understand that your office will undertake to forward thisdocument to Chairman Parkov.


If the Russian finds the proposal acceptable, weshould notify Ms. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Bestregards.


Sincerely yours,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №4


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Noworkman has the authority to makeother men cooperate with him to do faster work. It is only throughenforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the bestimplements and wor­king conditions, and enforced cooperation thatthis faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing theadoption of standards and of enforcingthis cooperation rests with the management alone. The management mustsupply continually one or more teachers to show each new man the newand simpler motions, and the slower men must be con­stantlywatched and helped until they have risen to their proper speed. Allof those who, after proper teaching, either will not or cannot workin accordance with the new methods and at the higher speed must bedischarged by the management. The management must also recognize thebroad fact that workmen will not submit to this more rigidstandardization and will not work extra hard, unless they re­ceiveextra pay for doing it.

The science whichexists in most of the mechanic arts is, how­ever, far simplerthan the science of cutting metals. In almost all cases, in fact, thelaws or rules which are developed are so simple that the average manwould hardly dignify them with the name of a science.

In problems ofmarket selection and product planning one of the key concepts is thatof the Product Life Cycle. That products pass through various stagesbetween life and death (introduction - growth - maturity - decline)is hard to deny. Equally accepted is the understanding that a companyshould have a mix of products with representation in each of thesestages. Companies can make far more effective marketing decisions ifthey take time to find out where each of their products stands in itslife cycle.

However, the conceptof the product life cycle seems frequently forgotten in marketingplanning, which leads to wrong decision-making. This may well be seenin the following story.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

H.E.

Mr. Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Dear Mr. Bogachev,


I want to thank you for your participation in thePolitical and Economic LeadersSummit of 7-8 February, inThessaloniki, in the frame of ASIA FORUM 2000.


You will soon receive a short report with the conclusions. We proceedalso to the publication of the Proceedings.


We have started the preparations for the BusinessMeeting and Exhibition of 23-28 May.We hope to have your support in motivating enterprises andbusinessmen to participate in the event.


We shall ask your active involvement in the Mayevent very soon.


Thanking you once again, I remain


Sincerely yours


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №5


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Managerstend to be problem oriented. Managers need a great de­al ofknowledge. Yet managers are reallypeople of action. They don't just talk about doing things, they getthem done. So we now outline just what they do. Management booksusually concentrate on management functions and processes. In fact,the subject of manage­ment frequently is defined in terms of thetypes of things managers do.

1. Managers makedecisions, that is they develop a process by which a course of actionis consciously chosen from available alternatives for the purpose ofachieving a desired result.

2. Managers focus onobjectives, set objectives.

3. Managers plan andset or make policies.

4. Managers organizeand staff the positions, that is, they use a process by which thestructure and allocation of jobs is determi­ned and then placepeople in these jobs.

5. Managerscommunicate with subordinates, colleagues, and superiors, in otherwords, managers transmit ideas to others for the purpose of effectinga desired result.

6. Managers directand supervise, that is, they secure actual performance fromsubordinates toward common goals and objectives.

7. Managers controlactivities, that is, they utilize processes that measure actualperformance and guide it toward some predetermi­ned goal.

Marketing managementrefers to a broad concept covering organization of production andsales of products, which is based on consumer - requirementsresearch. All companies must look beyond their present situation anddevelop a long-term strategy to meet changing conditions in theirindustry. Marketing manage­ment, therefore, consists ofevaluating market opportunities, se­lecting markets, developingmarket strategies, planning marketing tactics and controllingmarketing results.

Strategic planningincludes defining the company's long-term as well as specificobjectives, such as sales volume, market share, profitability andinnovation, and deciding on financial, material and other resourcesnecessary to achieve those objectives.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Der President 10965BERLIN

des Bundeskartellamtes


18 December 1998


Minister

Gennadiy Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9thInternational Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin, the venue ofour last conference.


The subject of the 9thInternational Conference on Competition is:

Mega-mergers–


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlinas a participant at our 9thInternational Conference on Competition. As in previous conferences,a simultaneous translation will be in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,

Wolf


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №6


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Theconcepts of "management" and "managers" are oftenviewed upon, to a great extent, as synonymous. Management presupposesthe people at the top who direct the work of others, do their work bygetting other people to do theirs. Management is an organ, andor­gans can be described and defined only through their function.Management is the specific organ of the business enterprise. Theenterprise can decide, act and behave only as its managers do; byitself the enterprise has no effective existence. Any businessenterprise must have a management to be alive and functioning.

Eversince people began forming groups to accomplish goals they could notachieve as individuals, managing has been essential to as­surethe coordination of individual efforts. As society has come to relyincreasingly on group effort and as many organized groups have becomelarge, the task of managers has risen in importance. This is easy tounderstand, that it is the task of every manager to design andmaintain an environment in which people working together in groupsare led to perform effectively and efficiently toward the attainmentof group goals.

To study managers isto study how they perform their task - and to summarizеknowledge useful for understanding managing so that this job may bedone better.

Talentedpeople flock to the organization and aren't tempted to leave.Self-regulation has a trickle-down ef­fect. No one wants to beknown as a hothead when the boss is known for her calm approach.Fewer bad moods at the top mean fewer throughout the organization.

The signs ofemotional self-regulation, therefore, are not hard to miss: apropensity for reflection and thoughtfulness; comfort with ambiguityand change; and integrity—an ability to say no to impulsiveurges.

Thethird component of emotional intelligence is mo­tivation, onetrait that virtually all effective leaders have. Theyare driven to achieve beyond expectations—their own andeveryone else's. The key word here is achieve. Those with leadershippotential are motivated by a deeply embedded desire to achieve forthe sake of achievement.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:


It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.


Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.

Sincerely.


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №7


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Thusthe goal ofmanagers, as managers, is fundamentally the same in business andnon-business enterprises. It is also the same at every level. Thecorporation president, the city administrator, the hospitaldepartment head, the government first—line supervisor, and theuniversity president or dean,all, as managers, have the same goals. The purposes of theirenterprise or their department may vary, and these purposes may bemore difficult to define in one situation than in another, but theirbasic managerial goal remains the same.

Notall groups believe that they need managing. As a matterof fact, certain critics of modern management feel that people wouldwork together better and with more personal satisfaction if therewere no managers. They prefer to refer to the ideal group operationas a "team" effort. They apparently do not realize that inthe most rudimentary form of team play, individuals, playing a game,have clear group goals as well as personal ones, are assigned topositions, fol­low-play patterns, allow someone to call theplays, and follow cer­tain rules and guidelines. Indeed, acharacteristic of every effec­tive group effort, designed toattain group goals at the least cost of time, money, material, ordiscomfort is that it adopts the basic process, principles, andtechniques of management.

Social skill, thelast component, is not as simple as it sounds. It's nor merelyfriendliness, although people with social skill are rarelymean-spirited. Rather, social skill is friendliness with a purpose:moving people in the direc­tion you desire, whether that'sagreement on a new mar­keting strategy or enthusiasm about a newproduct.

Socially skilledpeople tend to have a wide circle of ac­quaintances, and theyhave a knack for finding common ground with people of all kinds—aknack for building rapport. That doesn't mean they socializecontinually; it means they work according to the assumption thenoth­ing important gets done alone. Such people have a net­workin place when the time for action comes.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

INTERNATIONAL& PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPT.

Athens, 29 December 1999


Mr. Alexey PROKOFIEV

Vice Minister


Subject: EOMMEX's data base


Dear Sir,


The Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises andHandicraft (EOMMEX) is the Public Body supporting the SME's in Greecesupervised by the Ministry of Development.


EOMMEX, is trying to enrich it's data base with all the existingnformation, in order to help the Greek SME's develop transnationalco-operations.


Therefore, we would very much appreciate if you would send us all theavailable information concerning the following topics :


1. The existing legislation on foreign investment.

2. The incentives that could attract foreign investments (e.g.current tax system e.t.c.).


We would like to thank you in advance for your kind co-operation.


Sincerely yours,

Kl. Stavrakakis Director


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №8


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Managingis essential in all organized cooperation, as well as at all levelsof organization in an enterprise. It is the function not only of thecorporation president and the army general but also of the shopsupervisor and the company commander. In working with manyenterprises and organizations, one can hear it said repeatedly thatthe "trouble" with the enterprise is the "management",meaning persons at a higher level in the organization. Evenvice-presidents of a company havemade this observation. While weaknesses and dif­ficulties mayappear at any level of management, effective and per­ceptivemanagement demands that all those responsible for the work of others,at all levels and in any type of enterprise, regard themselves asmanagers.

Thereis no basic distinction between managers and executives,administrators, or supervisors. To be sure, a given situation maydiffer considerably between various levels in an organization orva­rious types of enterprise, the scope of authority held mayvary, the typesof problems dealt with may be considerably different, and a person ina managerial role may also be a salesman, engineer, or financier butthe fact remains that, as managers, all who obtain results byestablishing an environment for effective group endeavor undertakethe same functions.

Some basiccharacteristics seem to apply to managers in all types oforganizations; they include hard work on a variety of acti­vities,preference for active tasks, direct personal relationships.

Almost everything amanager does involves decisions. The reason for making a decision isthat a problem exists. In decision-making there is always someuncertainty and risk.

Managing is a hardjob. There is a lot to be done and relatively little time to do it.The engineer can finish a design on a particular day, and the lawyercan win or lose a case at a certain time. But the manager's job islike «Old Man River» — it just keeps going.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Joe Smith

Director General

Fair Trade Commission

USA


Re: NewInformational and Communication Technologies. Review and Perspectives


20 August 1999


Dear Mr Smith


We have the pleasure to invite you to participate in theInternational Conference

"New Informational and Communication Technologies. Review andPerspectives".


This high-level International Conference will take place in London,8-9 November 1999. It will host participants from competitionauthorities representing foreign and international organizations,governmental, academic and business circles.


The working languages of the Conference are English and French.


We would highly appreciate your participation in this event.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


William Brandt, Minister


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №9


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


MANAGERSAND MANAGEMENT

Every activityinvolving human effort possesses an element which to some degreebгings unity and cohesiveness to the underta­king. We callthis element management.

Themanager, in contrast to management, is an individual who provides theappropriate environment conducive to the performance of acts byothers to accomplish the undertaking. In the case of a uni­lateralundertaking, management is self– contained and the manager is involved with self-management.

When two or moreindividuals are engaged in a joint endeavor, however, management isno longer self-contained, and providing unity and cohesiveness to theundertaking is an external (versus self-con­tained) managerialfunction that varies widely in complexity. A ma­nager in a simplesituation may be little more than a receiver, sto­rer,translator, and communicator of information pertinent to theeffective performance of the undertaking. This receivingstoring-translating, nevertheless effects the cohesiveness desiredand as such, causes the communicator to be known as a manager.

Many managerialundertakings, on the other hand, are rather complex and require morethan mere communication, a basic knowledge and understanding ofperhaps the technical aspects of an operation may be needed and theact of managing may also involve a more comp­lex decision-makingprocess.

Ihave found, however, that the most effective leaders are alike in onecrucial way. They all have a high degree of what has come to be knownas emotional intelligence. It's not thatIQ and technical skills are irrelevant. They do matter, but mainly as"threshold capabilities"; that is, they are the entry-levelrequirements for exec­utive positions. But my research, alongwith other recent studies, clearly shows that emotional intelligenceis the sine qua non of leadership. Without it, a person can have thebest training in the world, an incisive, analytical mind and anendless supply or smart ideas, but he or she still won't make a greatleader.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister of National Economy


28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visitto Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held inThesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate ifyou could find a few minutes in your dense business schedule and meetme and discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.


Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Minister


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социологияуправления)


билет №10


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Yourtime is 45 minutes


Underscientific management the "initiative" of the workmen (thatis, their hard work, their good-will, and theiringenuity) is obtained with absolute uniformity and to a greaterextent than is possible under the old system; and in addition tothis improvement an the part of the men, the managers assume newburdens, new duties, and responsibilities never dreamed of in thepast. The managers as­sume, for instance, the burden of gatheringtogether all of the traditional knowledge which in the past has beenpossessed by the work­men and then classifying, tabulating, andreducing this knowledge to rules, laws, and formulae which areimmensely helpful to the workmen in doing their daily work. Inaddition to developing a scien­ce in this way, the managementtake on three types of duties which involve new and heavy burdens forthemselves.

These new duties aregrouped under four heads:

First.They develop a science for each element of a man's work, whichreplaces the old rule-of-thumb method.

Second.They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop theworkman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trainedhimself as best as he could.

Third.They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the workbeing done in accordance with the principles of the science which hasbeen developed.

Fourth.There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibilitybetween the management and the workmen. The management take over allwork for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in thepast almost all of the work and the greater part of theresponsibility were thrown upon the men.

Every businessperson knows a story about a highly intelligent, highly skilledexecutive who was promoted into a leadership position only to fail atthe job. And they also know a story about some­one with solid —but nor extraordinary — intellectual abil­ities andtechnical skills who was promoted into a simi­lar position andthen soared.

Such anecdotessupport the widespread belief that identifying individuals with the"right stuff" to be leaders is more art than science. Afterall, the personal styles of su­perb leaders vary. And just asimportant, different situa­tions call for different types ofleadership.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mr. Minister:

It was a pleasure to meet you during our recent visit to Moscow. Iwas encouraged with the discussion and look forward to moving aheadto assist small- and medium-sized businesses in Russia.


Mr. Paul Tumminia, Ex-Im Bank Director-Russia and NIS, will be incontact with you as to our future plans on this matter.

Please do let us know if you are planning to be in the U.S.
Sincerely,


phone (202)565-3500 fax(202) 565-3513

811 vermontavenue, N.W. washington,D.C. 20571


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №1


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Gibbon writes of 'the love of pleasure and thelove of action':

... To the love of pleasure we may therefore ascribe most of theagreeable, to the love of action we may attribute most of the usefuland respectable qualifications. The character in which both the oneand the other should be united and harmonized would seem toconstitute the most perfect idea of human nature.

Gibbon recognizes quite clearly that the most deplorablemanifestations of aggression share identical roots with valuable andessential parts of human endeavour. Without the aggressive, activeside of his nature man would be even less able than he is to directthe course of his life or to influence the world around him. In fact,it is obvious that man could never have attained his presentdominance, nor even have survived as a species, unless he possessed alarge endowment of aggressiveness.

It is a tragic paradox that the very qualitieswhich have led to man's extraordinary success are also those mostlikely to destroy him. His ruthless drive to subdue or to destroyevery apparent obstacle in his path does not stop short at his ownfellows; and since he now possesses weapons of unparalleleddestructiveness and also apparently lacks the built-in safeguardswhich prevent most animals from killing others of the same species,it is not beyond possibility that he may yet encompass the totalelimination homo sapiens.

What follows are the reflections of apsychotherapist upon the aggressive component in human nature. Theviews which are put forward are anything but dogmatic. Allpsycho­therapists suffer from the fact that, although theirknowledge of a few people may be rather profound, their conclusionsare necessarily drawn from a limited and highly selected sample ofthe population. Moreover, many of the theories which are available inthe practice of psychotherapy are difficult to substantiatescientifically, because the psychotherapist is endeavouring to dealwith the person as a whole. Psychologists working in laboratories canconstruct experiments in which, for example, aggressive emotions canbe more or less separately aroused and studied: and the conclusionswhich they reach can be statistically expressed. The disadvantage ofnearly all such experiments is that the situations upon which theyare based are so restricted that they are far removed from life as itis lived. Aggression, for example, is inextricably mingled with fearand sex in many situations. It is very much to be hoped that, intime, there will be a rapprochementbetween the precise but limited viewpoint of the experimentalist, andthe less denned but wider conceptions of the psychotherapist. In themeantime, we must do the best we can with incomplete and unprovedhypotheses.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visitto Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held inThesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate ifyou could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet meand discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №2


Task I. Translate from English into Russian inwriting using a dictionary. Your time is 45minutes

The book opens with a broad survey, in Part I. of the historicalliterature on technical change. It attempts to provide a guide to awide range of writings, including those by some social historians andsocial theorists as well as economic historians and economists, thatilluminate technological change as-a; historical phenomenon. Itshould not be necessary to belabor two points: (i) that past historyis an indispensable source of information to anyone interested incharacterizing technologies, and (2) that both the determinants andthe consequences of technological innovation raise issues that go farbeyond the generally recognized domain of the economist and theeconomic historian. The first chapter discusses aspects of theconceptualization of technological change and then goes on toconsider what the literature has had to say on (i) the rate oftechnological change. (2) the forces influencing its direction, (3)the speed with which new technologies have diffused, and (4) theimpact of technological change on the growth in productivity.

A separate chapter is devoted to Marx. Marx'sintellectual impact has been so pervasive as to rank him as a majorsocial force inhistory as well as an armchair interpreter ofhistory. And yet, curiously enough, I argue that Marx's analysis oftechnological change opened doors to the study of the technologicalrealm through which hardly anyone has sub­sequently passed.

Part II is, in important respects, the core of the book. Each of itschapters advances an argument about some significant characteristicsof industrial technologies, characteristics that are typicallysuppressed in discussions of technological change conducted at highlevels of aggregation or lacking in historical specificity. Chapter 3explores a variety of less visible forms in which technologicalimprovements enter the economy. Each of these forms, it is argued, isimportant in determining the connections between technologicalinnovations and the growth of productivity lowing from innovation.Chapter 4 explicitly considers some significant characteristics ofdifferent energy forms. It became a common practice in the 1970s,following the Arab oil embargo, to treat energy as someundifferentiated mass expressible in Btus which it was in society'sinterests to minimize. This chapter examines some of the complexitiesof the long-term interactions between technological change and energyresources. It emphasizes, in particular, the frequently imperfectsubstitutability among energy sources in industrial contexts and theconsequent suboptimality of criteria for energy utilization that failto take specific characteristics of different energy forms intoaccount.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter ofInvitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №3


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Chapter 5 "On Technological Expectations," addresses anissue that is simultaneously relevant to a wide range of industries -indeed, to all industries that are experiencing, or are expected toexperience, substantial rates of technical improvement. I argue thatrational decision making with respect to the adoption of aninnovation requires careful consideration of prospective rates oftechnological innovation. Such a consideration will often lead tocounterintuitive decisions, including slow adoption rates that, fromother perspectives, may appear to be irrational. Expectations aboutthe future behavior of technological systems and their com­ponentsare shown to be a. major and neglected factor in the diffusion of newtechnologies.

The last two chapters of Part II are primarily concerned with issuesof greatest relevance to high-technology industries -industries inwhich new product development involves large development costs, longlead times, and considerable techno­logical uncertainty(especially concerning product performance characteristics) and thatrely in significant ways upon knowledge that is close to thefrontiers of present-day scientific research.

Chapter 6. "Learning by Using," identifies an importantsource of learning that grows out of actual experience in usingproducts characterized by a high degree of system complexity. Incontrast to learning by doing, which deals with skill improvementsthat grow out of the productive process, learning by using involvesan experience that begins where learning by doing ends. Theimportance of learning by using is explored in some detail withrespect to aircraft, but reasons are advanced suggesting that it maybe a much more pervasive phenomenon in high-technology industries.

The final chapter in PartII, "How Exogenous Is Science?"looks explicitly at the nature of science-technology interactions inhigh-technology industries. It examines some of the specific ways inwhich these industries have been drawing upon the expanding pool ofscientific knowledge and techniques. The chapter also "considers,however, a range of much broader questions concerning theinstitutionalization of science and the manner in which the agenda ofscience is formulated in advanced industrial societies. Thus, a majortheme of the chapter is that, far from being exogenous forces to theeconomic arena, the content and direction of the scientificenterprise are heavily shaped by technological considerations thatare, in turn, deeply embedded in the structure of industrialsocieties.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 anInternational Conference "New Prospects of scientific andtechnological and production cooperation of Russia with foreignstates" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite arepresentative from your Ministry and two persons representingbusiness circles.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian, German andEnglish. For further information please contact Ms Golovina (tel.:456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №4


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Chapter 9. examines the ongoing technologicalrevolution embodied in very-large-scale integration. It points outthat there are a variety of mediating factors that stand between anexpanding technological capability and commercialsuccess. The growth in circuit-element density, with the resultingdramatic improvement in the capability of a single chip, offers agreat potential for the application of electronic techniques in manyfields. The success of such applications will turn upon developmentsinternal to the industry, but also upon the creation of mechanismsthat will translate this new technological capability into tangibleeconomic advantages. Chapter 10 focuses not upon an individualindustry but upon a numberof recent empirical studies of technical change. These studies, whichshare an emphasis upon the dominant role marked demand in theinnovation process, have been widely cited as providing an adequatebasis for a successful government innovation policy. It is arguedthat these studies are, analytically and conceptually, seriouslyincomplete. The chapter attempt' to provide a more comprehensiveframework for both analysis and policy formulation.

Finally, the two chapters of Part IV place the discussion oftechnological change in an international context, with the firstchapter oriented toward its long history and the second toward thepresent and the future. Chapter II pays primary attention to thetransfer of industrial technology from Britain to the rest of theworld. This transfer encompasses a large part of the story ofworldwide industrialization, because nineteenth-centuryindustrialization was, in considerable measure, the story of theoverseas transfer of the technologies already developed by the firstindustrial society. Particular attention is devoted to the conditionsthat shaped the success of these transfers, but a central concern istheir eventual impact upon the technology-exporting country. The lastchapter speculates about the prospects for the future from anAmerican perspective, a perspective that is often dominated byapprehension over the loss of American technological leadership,especially in high-technology industries. By drawing upon some of thedistinctive characteristics of high-technology industries, an attemptis made to identify possible elements of a future scenario. I amconfident that the world economy of the 1990s will be powerfullyshaped by the international distribution of technologicalcapabilities: but it will also be shaped by economic and socialforces that strongly influence the comparative effectiveness withwhich the available technologies are exploited.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter ofInvitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №5


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


That man is an aggressive creature will hardly be disputed. With theexception of certain rodents, no other veterbrate habitually destroysmembers of his own species. No other animal takes positive pleasurein the exercise of cruelty upon another of his own kind. We generallydescribe the most repulsive examples of man's cruelty as brutal orbestial, implying by these adjectives that such behaviour ischaracteristic of less highly developed animals than ourselves. Intruth, however, the extremes of 'brutal' behaviour are confined toman; and there is no parallel in nature to our savage treatment ofeach other. The sombre fact is that we are the cruellest and mostruthless species that has ever walked the earth: and that, althoughwe may recoil in horror when we read in newspaper or history book ofthe atrocities committed by man upon man, we know in our hearts thateach one of us harbours within himself those same savage impulseswhich lead to murder, to torture and to war.

To write about human aggression is a difficult task because the termis used in so many different senses. Aggression is one of those wordswhich everyone knows, but which is nevertheless hard to define. Aspsychologists and psychiatrists use it, it covers a very wide rangeof human behaviour. The red-faced infant squalling for the bottle isbeing aggressive; and so is the judge who awards a thirty-yearsentence for robbery. The guard in a concentration camp who tortureshis helpless victim is obviously acting aggressively. Lessmanifestly, but no less certainly, so is the neglected wife whothreatens or attempts suicide in order to regain her husband'saffection. When a word becomes so diffusely applied that it is usedboth of the competitive striving of a footballer and also of thebloody violence of a murderer, it ought either to be dropped or elsemore closely defined. Aggression is a portmanteau term which isfairly bursting at its seams. Yet, until we can more clearlydesignate and comprehend the various aspects of human behaviour whichare subsumed under this head, we cannot discard the concept.

One difficulty is that there is no clear dividing line between thoseforms of aggression which we all deplore and those which we must notdisown if we are to survive.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held inLondon from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is verythe traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importancewill be important.


Considering your great contribution to the development of the Russianadvertising business, we are confident that your contacts withleaders of the advertising industry from around the world will have apositive effect on the further development of the advertising marketin Russia.


Sincerely,


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №6


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


As narrative 1917fills a surprising gap in the literature on the subject. There are alarge number ofdetailed studies of different aspects of the revolution, some of thembrilliant works of scholarship. But no simple, comprehensive accountof the two revolutions and the civil war exists. Schapiro's book isbrief, but covers all the main points with absolute clarity. It alsoincorporates the conclusions of the most important recent research onthe subject. The reader gets both an excellent introduction to theRussian revolution and an idea of how new material is causingthinking about it to change.

The value of Schapiro's analysis is more questionable. Schapiro wasold and rigid, an adherent of the cold war/totalitarianism school.His interpretation of the Russian revolution is crude and unashamedlybiased. He hates the Bolsheviks. He looks at the Russian revolutionpurely from the point of view of political power.

Schapiro's thesis goes roughly as follows. After the disintegrationof the monarchy in February 1917, there was general support in thecountry for a broad-based socialist coalition. This quickly came tomean support for the Soviets, rather than for the ProvisionalGovernment. However, support for the Soviets did not mean support forthe Bolsheviks, but for the 'traditional ideals of Russiansocialism', represented by the SRs and, especially, the Mensheviks.The Bolsheviks were a small band of disciplined fanatics. They wereable to seize power in October because no one organised to stop them.They held on to it by annihilating their opponents, ruthlesslymanipulating public opinion and militarising the economy. Right up to1924, they were 'a largely unpopular party'. The first choice of amajority of the population would have been 'some form of moderatesocialism'.

While it isundoubtedly true that the Bolsheviks were unscrupulous in theirchoice of methods and that they were not supported by a majority ofthe population when they seized power, Schapiro's thesis isprejudiced, one- sided and out-dated.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister ofInternational Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you willaccord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry


TaskIII. Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №7


Task I. Translate from English into Russianin writing using a dictionary. Your time is 45 minutes


What do we mean by the economy of the country? Inassessing a country's standard of living or comparing the standardsof living of different countries it is common practice to usestatistics of the Gross Domestic Product. The gdpmeasures incomes earned, and the goods andservices produced, in the official "formal" economy. Butthis tends not to account for themass of productive activity outside the formal economy—moonlighting,diy. voluntarywork and so forth, which may well not be reflected in the indicatorsof gdp. And sincethe balance between the shadow and formal economy varies from countryto country, comparisons on the basis of gdpmay be quite misleading.

The problems in assessing the economy of a singlecountry are much the same. Our understanding of the distribution ofincome, and hence much of our thinking on poverty and inequality,derives from what we know about people's incomes from work in theformal economy. Is it possible that by relying on statistics of theformal economy alone, we may be misled about the extent of poverty inthe UK?

In a research project at the Institute for Fiscal Studies we havebeen exploring the interaction of the formal and shadow economies.Two issues struck us as important. Firstly, does the shadow economyreinforce or offset the inequalities which are observed in the formaleconomy? Secondly, what scope does the shadow economy provide forhouseholds to compensate for a temporary decline in earnings andemployment opportunities in the formal economy?

The wide range of activitiesin the shadow economycan be divided into two broad categories. There are monetarytransactions concealed to avoid tax—people doing odd jobs forcash payment, a businessman failing to declare part of his turnover,and so forth— which, following popular usage, we have calledthe "black economy." Then there is a wide range ofproductive activities which do not involve monetarypayment—housework, diy, voluntarywork—which we have simply called the "wider shadoweconomy." There are important similarities between activities inthe black economy and some parts of the wider shadoweconomy—especially in the role that the tax system can play inencouraging alternatives to formal economy goods and services.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participatein the International Conference "10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow,18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign andinternational organizations, governmental, academic and businesscircles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy andcompetition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston(tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №8


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


But there is the important difference thatattempts are already made to adjust certain official statistics—mostnotably the national accounts—to include an estimated amountfor the black economy. Productive activity in the rest of the shadoweconomy is almost entirely excluded from gdpby convention: official statistics areconfined to measuring transactions where money changes hands. Theamounts included in gdp forthe contribution of the black economy are not large— they havegenerally been between 1 and 3 per cent of total gdp.And our own estimates do not suggest thatit is much larger—perhaps in total some 3 to 5 per cent of gdp.

The black economy is, however, highly concentratedin particular areas. Certain types of taxpayer are in a betterposition than others to evade income tax. In particular,self-employed people have control over the amount of income theydeclare for tax in a way that most employee taxpayers, who pay taxthrough paye, donot. Through econometric analysis of employee and self-employedhouseholds' expenditure patterns, we found evidence of substantialunder-declaration of income by householders where the head wasself-employed. We estimated that on average self-employed householdswere failing to declare some 10 to 20 per cent of income for tax,making tax evasion by the self-employed much the largest part of theblack economy. Second job earnings may also escape the payenet—but survey evidence suggests thatincomes earned in second jobs may well be less than 1 per cent ofincomes earned in main jobs.

The kinds of business most involved in the blackeconomy are likely to be smaller businesses selling labour-intensiveservices to private households and individuals—building,decorating, cab driving, for example. Larger businesses are likely toexperience control and management problems if they try to conductbusiness "off the books" on a large scale; and thestructure of the tax system— especially of vat—meansthat it is a high value-added business where the greatest competitivepressures to trade "off the books" may arise.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, whois a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate ifyou could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange themeeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №9


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Given this uneven distribution of the blackeconomy across the economy, who benefits from it? On the face of it,it would seem that the people who work in the black economy, and donot pay the income tax or vat thatthey are supposed to pay, are the gainers, and that the "honesttaxpayers" are the losers. But in fact the answer is morecomplex than this. Each transaction in the black economy involves abuyer and a seller; the gains to be made for evading tax may accrueto either—or may be split between them. How the gains fromevasion are divided between buyers and sellers of black economy goodsand services depends on the prices at which they are sold. Ifcustomers get a discount off black economy work, or if black economytraders try to undercut the prices of formal economy traders to gainbusiness, then some of the gains from tax evasion will flow to thecustomer.

Indeed, in sectors where black economy business forms a highproportion of the total, customers may receive all the gains fromevasion, and the seller none. In parts of the building industry, forexample, evading tax may be the price for business survival;competition from other black economy businesses may hand all thegains to customers.

Where the black economy is small, the gains from evasion are likelyto be reaped by the businesses involved. This does not necessarilymean that they flow to the rich; the earnings of many self-employedpeople are surprisingly low. But we believe by far the largest partof the black economy to be concentrated in a relatively small numberof areas—in building and decorating in particular. Herecompetitive pressures may transfer most of the gains to thecustomers, through a lower level of prices for these services.Typically the customers will be owner occupiers, and relatively welloff. The black economy may well reinforce inequality.

How does the pattern of production in the wider shadow economy affectthe relative living standards of different sections of thepopulation? There are few households which do not perform some unpaidproductive activity, but those households that can affordlabour-saving domestic equipment may use their domestic labour timemore productively than those who cannot.

The need for expensive equipment and materials mayalso prevent poorer households participating effectively in areas ofshadow economy production such as diy. Theunemployed, whilst having plenty of free time, can rarely buy thematerials and equipment necessary for home maintenance and homeimprovements.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9thInternational Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9thInternational Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlinas a participant at our 9thInternational Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translationservice will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:социальнаяфилософия)


билет №10


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Too relaxed toread?

Backward readers can be helped more by teachingthem to read than by teaching them torelax, according to Christopher Sharpley, of Monash University,Australia, and Steven Rowland, of the Scot's School, Australia(British Journal of EducationalPsychology, vol. 56. part 1, page 40).

Previous studies have suggested that backward readers experiencestress caused by anxiety at failure, and that their learning can beimproved by teaching relaxation.

This study involved 50 nine to eleven year old children, in fivesmall primary schools, in four country towns in New South Wales. Thechildren were divided into five groups. One group were taught tolower their muscle tension by using electromyographic biofeedback(which involves electrodes attached to a forearm and to a visualdisplay dial); the second was given relaxation training; and thethird had remedial teaching based on phonics and comprehension. Inaddition, one of two control groups had daily reading tests (as didthe three experimental groups) and the other did not.

The children's accuracy, speed and comprehensionin reading were measured for two weeks, then the different treatmentswere given for five weeks. The results showed that only the groupwhich had received remedial teaching improved in reading accuracy. Nogroup improved in reading speed—and this even decreasedfor the group which experienced biofeedback.

All the experimental groups showed gains in comprehension, as did thefirst control group, suggesting that this was an effect of increasedreading practice.

The authors suggest that reducing stress may have worked against anyimprovement in reading (an optimum level of stress being necessaryfor successful learning), or that teaching the children to relaxreduced the attention they gave to their reading.

So while relaxation may be of general benefit, reducing the symptomsof stress seems to be less helpful then reducing its cause—failure.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on TechnicalAssistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. TradingCommission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward thisdocument to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notifyMs. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Bestregards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III.Conversation on the topic of your thesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №1


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


WHATECONOMICS IS

As a scholarly discipline, economics is only twocenturies old. Adam Smith published his pathbreaking book TheWealth of Nations in 1776, a yearnotable also for the Declaration of Indepen­dence. It is nocoincidence that both documents appeared the same year: Politicalfreedom from the tyranny of monarchy was closely related toemanci­pation of prices and wages from the interfering hand ofstate regulation.

Adam Smith, of course, represented only abeginning. In more than a century and a half that elapsed between theappearance of The Wealth of Nationsand the publication of John Maynard Keynes' TheGeneral Theory of Employment, Interest and Money(1936), economics went through many stages of development. Almost atthe halfway point, there appeared the massive critique of capi­talismby Karl Marx:Das Kapital(1867. followed by two posthumous volumes). More than a billionpeople, one-third of the world's population, live in countries whereDas Kapitalis economic gospel.

Definitions

On first encountering economics, people often wanta short definition, inresponse to this demand, there is no shortage of supply. Here are afew popular definitions:

  • Economics is the study of those activities that involve productionand exchange among people.

  • Economics analyzes movements in the overall economy—trends inprices, output, and unemployment. Once such phenomena areunder­stood, economics helps develop the policies by whichgovernments can affect the overall economy.

  • Economics is the science of choice. It studieshow people choose to use scarceor limited productiveresources (land, labor, equipment, technical knowledge) to producevarious commodi­ties (such as wheat, beef, overcoats, concerts.roads, missiles and distribute these goods to vari­ous membersof society for their consumption.

  • Economics is the study of how human be­ings go about thebusiness of organizing consump­tion and production activities.

  • Economics is the study of money, interest rates, capital and wealth.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Ms Rodoula Ath. ZICCI

Deputy Minister

of National Economy

28 January 2000

Dear Ms Zicci


Herewith I am glad to write in accordance with my forthcoming visitto Greece as a participant to ASIA FORUM 2000 which is to be held inThesalloniki on 7-8 February.


I was a great pleasure to meet you during my visit to Athens in July.


Taking the chance of going to Greece I would greatly appreciate ifyou could find a few minutes in your business schedule and meet meand discuss the issues of mutual interest.


Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation and assistance.Looking forward to meeting you, I remain


Sincerely yours


Gennady Bogachev

Deputy Director


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №2


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Eco­nomics certainly does involve all the Moments stressed inthese various definitions—and more.

Economists today agree on a general defini­tion something likethe following:

Economics is the study of how people and society choose to employscarce resources that could have alternative uses in order to producevarious commodities and to distribute them for consumption, now or inthe future, among various persons and groups in society.

Measurement inEconomics

We might conclude that economics talks about manyof life's practical questions. Butit does more than talk: Economics is vitally concerned with themeasurement of important phenomena— unemployment, prices, incomes, andso forth.

One importantexample of such measurement occurs in macroeconomics. As we will seein Parts Two and Three of this text,macroeconomicsstud­ies the behavior of the economy as a whole— movementsin overall prices or output or employ­ment. Microeconomics,in a sense, looks at the economy through a microscope—studyingthe behavior of an economy’s individual molecules, like firmsor households.

Returning to measurement, one of the mostimportant concepts in all economics is the grossnational product (GNP). This, asChapter 6 will discuss, represents the total dollar value of allgoods and services produced each year in a nation. The GNP tells usmuch about the real economic performance of a country. It is the bestavailable summary measure of the quantity of real goods andservices—food, clothing, penicillin, ballet, base­ball andso forth—a country is capable of gener­ating. It tells usmuch about a "country's living standard, its health status, andits educational attainment.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №3


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


As mentioned in chapter 2.1. a UK resident company is liable tocorporation tax on all its profits, wherever arising, for anaccounting period. This chapter describes the meaning of 'accountingperiod' and how the 'profits' of such a company are computed for taxpurposes.

3.2 An accounting period

Broadly, an accounting period is the period for which the annualstatutory accounts are drawn up. However, for tax purposes thatperiod cannot exceed 12 months. This means that if statutory accountsare drawn up for a period of, say. 18 months, there will be twoaccounting periods for corporation tax purposes - one comprising thefirst 12 months and the second comprising the 6 months up to the dateto which the statutory accounts have been prepared.

An accounting period begins when a company first acquires a source ofincome, starts to carry on business, or becomes UK resident, and ifit ceases to trade or to be resident in the UK an accounting periodends. However, these rules do not apply if a trading companycommences a further trade during an accounting period, or ceases onetrade whilst continuing to carry on another: in both cases theaccounting period continues unbroken. An accounting period ends whena company starts to be wound up, and thereafter every 12 months untilthe winding up is completed. It does not end if an administrationorder is made.

If a company's accounts cover a period in excess of 12 months, itstrading profits are apportioned to the accounting periods on a timebasis, whereas capital allowances and capital gains fall into theperiod in which the relevant acquisitions and disposals occur.

Where a company makes up accounts to slightly varying dates (e.g. thenearest Saturday to a month end) and the terminal date does not varyby more than four days from a mean date, the Inland Revenue will notnormally object to the treatment of each account as an account for aperiod of 12 months ended on the mean date provided the company hasagreed in writing to adopt this treatment. The company must alsoagree to certain other conditions for the purposes of accounting forincome tax and advance corporation tax. It is understood that theInland Revenue has no present intention of bringing this four dayperiod into line with the Companies Act 1985 which allows accounts tobe drawn up to any date within seven days either side of theaccounting reference date.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Kim-nee LEE

Minister of Trade

Ministry of Trade and Industry

5 July 2000

Dear Mr Lee


Herewith we are informing you that on 7-8 September, 2000 anInternational Conference "New Prospects of scientific andtechnological and production cooperation of Russia with foreignstates" is to be held in Nizhny Novgorod.


To participate in the forthcoming Conference we are glad to invite arepresentative from your Ministry and two persons representingbusiness circles.


The working languages of the Conference areRussian, German and English. For further information please contactMs Golovina (tel.: 456 899 01)


Looking forward for your prompt reply, I remain


Sincerely yours,


Vladimir Yugin

Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №4


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Definition of profits

The profits of a company on which corporation tax is levied comprisethe aggregate of its income from all sources, and capital gains.Whilst a company's accounts normally reflect such profits,unfortunately (or perhaps fortunately!) it does not simply paycorporation tax on the figure of net profit before taxation as shownby its statutory accounts. The profits are specially adjusted for taxpurposes, with different rules applying to different sources ofincome and capital gains.

It is therefore necessary to analyse the profits shown in theaccounts to establish the various sources of income and capitalgains, and then to apply the special rules for each source in orderto determine the company's taxable profits for that period. Theserules are described briefly below.

Dividends paid or payable are not of course deductible for taxpurposes, but the existence of other 'below the line' items (such asextraordinary or exceptional items) must not be overlooked whencomputing taxable profits (or losses).

Trading income

(a) General principles

The rules for ascertaining taxable trading income are complex and itis outside the scope of this chapter to describe them in detail.

The basic principles as regards tax deductibility of expenditure are:

(i) it must be wholly and exclusively incurred for trading purposes:and

(ii) it must not comprise capital expenditure. Thedefinition of capital expenditure is perhaps best expressed in theold tax case of Atherton BritishInsulated & Helsby Cables Ltd.((1925) 10 TC 155) as . . . expenditure . . . incurred not only onceand for all but with a view to bringing into existence an asset or anadvantage for the enduring benefit of a trade . . .

Broadly, however, trading income is ascertained bytaking the accounts profit before taxation, eliminating anynon-trading deductions or sources of income and capital gains, andmaking adjustments for items of a capital nature (e.g. depreciation,profits or losses on disposals of fixed assets), items specificallydeductible (e.g. capital allowances - seechapter 5) or specifically disallowable (e.g. business entertaining,general bad capital where the latter is an integral feature of thetrading activity.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Sadovaya'Kudrinskaya str.

Russian Federation


Letter of Invitation


Dear Minister


Thank you for your interest to meet representatives of theBrandenburg State Government, especially Prime Minister Dr. ManfredStoipe, during your stay in the Federal Republic of Germany fromApril 25"' to April 26"' 2000.


It is my pleasure to invite you to the state of Brandenburg. A copyof your request has been.mailed to the office of the Prime Ministerfor coordinating purposes.


Sincerely yours


Dr. Wolfgang FьrniЯ


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №5


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


(b)Foreign exchange gains and losses

In general, exchange gains and losses arising onrevenue account from normal trading transactions form part of thetaxable trading income, whereas transactions on capital account (i.e.those relating to the fixed asset base or financing structure) eitherfall outside the scope of the tax system or are treated as capitalgains or losses. In other words, the distinction between capital andcurrent liabilities is between loans which add to the capital base ofthe business and loans providing temporary financial accommodation.The dividing line is often difficult to draw and the answer in anyindividual case will turn on its particular facts. The House of Lordsdecided in a recent case (Beauchamp v F.W. Woolworth pie ([1989] STC 510)) thatfive year loans raised for the general purposes of a company's traderepresented a permanent addition to its capital so that exchangedifferences arising on their repayment were not tax deductible. Theposition is complex and reference should be made to a Statement ofPractice on the subject published by the Inland Revenue in 1987(SP1/87) and also to a consultative document ('Tax Treatment ofForeign Exchange Gains and Losses') published in March 1989 whichdiscusses how the present tax position might be reformed. The InlandRevenue's views on the tax treatment of transactions in financialfutures and options is set out in Statement of Practice 4/88.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

July 18,2000


Dear Mr. Petrov


I would like to inform you that I left my position as Minister ofInternational Trade and Industry on July 4.


Mr. Hiranuma has been appointed as my successor. I hope that you willaccord him the same goodwill and assistance you have granted me.


Please accept my best wishes. Respectfully yours,


Takashi Fukaya


Ministry of International Trade and Industry


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №6


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Paymentsto charity

To encourage charitable giving, a non close company can makecharit­able donations in cash (not in kind) on or after 1 April1986 of up to 3% of its net ordinary dividends paid in an accountingperiod and treat them as allowable charges on income, deductingincome tax in the normal way. These rules also apply to dividendspaid by subsidiary companies.

As regards accounting periods ending on or after 1October 1990, the above position has been relaxed in that any companycan make tax deductible cash donations to charity on or after thatdate. For a close company, each payment must be at least Ј600(net of basic rate income tax), must be made without stringsattached, no benefit must be received in return for the payment(except certain de minimisbenefits), and the total payments for a 12 month accounting periodmust not exceed Ј5 million (net of basic rate income tax)otherwise the excess is not deductible. This figure of Ј5million (which also applies to non close companies) is reducedproportionately where there are active associated companies for anypart of the accounting period and where it is less than 12 months,but if the company is not close the gross amount allowable cannot beless than 3% of its net ordinary dividends paid in the accountingperiod. Income tax must, as before, be deducted from each payment,the gross amount of which is treated as a charge on income.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

Dear Mrs. Fonaryova:


The 37th World Advertising Congress, "London 2000", will be held inLondon from 6 June through 9 June. This biennial Congress, is verythe traditional gathering place of top professionals.


We believe that your participation in this event of world importancewill be important.


Considering your great contribution to thedevelopment of the Russian advertising business, we are confidentthat your contacts with leaders of the advertising industry fromaround the world will have a positive effect on the furtherdevelopment of the advertising market in Russia.


Sincerely,


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №7


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Management expenses

An investment company, which is, broadly, acompany whose income over a representativeperiod is principally derived from the making or holding ofinvestments, which is the company's purpose or objective, can deductthe expenses of managing its investments, together with any chargeson income paid for business purposes, from its total profits forcorporation tax purposes. Any excess forms part of the managementexpenses of the next accounting period. Its management expenses andcharges on income (after deducting current profits) can also besur­rendered by way of group relief.

As in the case of a trading company, remuneration is not deductibleas a management expense in the period it is charged unless paidwithin nine months (18 months in the transitional period) followingthe end of the period. The rules relating to trading companies inthis context apply equally to investment companies.

An investment company cannot obtain tax relief forshort interest (i.e. interest paid on a loan not capable of exceeding12 months), unless paid to a UK bank, although relief is availablefor discounts on bills of exchange drawn by a company and accepted bya bank and discounted by a bank or discount house. Relief is alsoavailable as charges on income for recurrent payments under currencyand interest rate swaps (see also3.8 above).

In view of the somewhat restricted meaning of the term 'managementexpenses', it is normally preferable for the expenses of a groupmanage­ment company to be recovered (at an uplift) from thesubsidiaries by way of a service fee.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

To: Mr Takashi KOEZUKA

Deputy Secretary General


Re: 10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.

15 August 2000

Dear Mr KOEZUKA


We have the pleasure to invite you to participatein the International Conference "10thAnniversary of Antimonopoly Bodies.".


This high-level International Conference will take place in Moscow,18-19 October 2000. It will host participants from foreign andinternational organizations, governmental, academic and businesscircles for discussion of crucial problems of competition policy andcompetition law.


The working languages of the Conference are Russian and English.


For further details please contact Ms Johnston (tel.: 456 899 01)


Joe Brandton

Vice-Minister


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №8


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Eco­nomics certainly does involve all the Moments stressed inthese various definitions—and more.

Economists today agree on a general defini­tion something likethe following:

Economics is the study of how people and society choose to employscarce resources that could have alternative uses in order to producevarious commodities and to distribute them for consumption, now or inthe future, among various persons and groups in society.

Measurement inEconomics

We might conclude that economics talks about manyof life's practical questions. Butit does more than talk: Economics is vitally concerned with themeasurement of important phenomena— unemployment, prices, incomes, andso forth.

One importantexample of such measurement occurs in macroeconomics. As we will seein Parts Two and Three of this text,macroeconomicsstud­ies the behavior of the economy as a whole— movementsin overall prices or output or employ­ment. Microeconomics,in a sense, looks at the economy through a microscope—studyingthe behavior of an economy’s individual molecules, like firmsor households.

Returning to measurement, one of the mostimportant concepts in all economics is the grossnational product (GNP). This, asChapter 6 will discuss, represents the total dollar value of allgoods and services produced each year in a nation. The GNP tells usmuch about the real economic performance of a country. It is the bestavailable summary measure of the quantity of real goods andservices—food, clothing, penicillin, ballet, base­ball andso forth—a country is capable of gener­ating. It tells usmuch about a "country's living standard, its health status, andits educational attainment.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

TO: Ms Klery STAVRAKAKIS

Director

Organization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

5 February 2000

Dear Ms Stavrakakis


Herewith we are informing you that Mr Bogachev, Deputy Minister, whois a participant to the AZ1A FORUM 2000 in Thesallomki on February7-8, will be in Athens on February 9 in the afternoon.


Taking the chance of being in Athens he would greatly appreciate ifyou could meet so as to discuss issues of mutual interest.


Please contact Mr Filimonov so as to arrange the meeting.


I thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


Sincerely yours


Vladimir Egorov

Head, Department for International Relations


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №9


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


WHATECONOMICS IS

As a scholarly discipline, economics is only twocenturies old. Adam Smith published his pathbreaking book TheWealth of Nations in 1776, a yearnotable also for the Declaration of Indepen­dence. It is nocoincidence that both documents appeared the same year: Politicalfreedom from the tyranny of monarchy was closely related toemanci­pation of prices and wages from the interfering hand ofstate regulation.

Adam Smith, of course, represented only abeginning. In more than a century and a half that elapsed between theappearance of The Wealth of Nationsand the publication of John Maynard Keynes' TheGeneral Theory of Employment, Interest and Money(1936), economics went through many stages of development. Almost atthe halfway point, there appeared the massive critique of capi­talismby Karl Marx:Das Kapital(1867. followed by two posthumous volumes). More than a billionpeople, one-third of the world's population, live in countries whereDas Kapitalis economic gospel.

Definitions

On first encountering economics, people often wanta short definition, inresponse to this demand, there is no shortage of supply. Here are afew popular definitions:

  • Economics is the study of those activities that involve productionand exchange among people.

  • Economics analyzes movements in the overall economy—trends inprices, output, and unemployment. Once such phenomena areunder­stood, economics helps develop the policies by whichgovernments can affect the overall economy.

  • Economics is the science of choice. It studieshow people choose to use scarceor limited productiveresources (land, labor, equipment, technical knowledge) to producevarious commodi­ties (such as wheat, beef, overcoats, concerts.roads, missiles and distribute these goods to vari­ous membersof society for their consumption.

  • Economics is the study of how human be­ings go about thebusiness of organizing consump­tion and production activities.

  • Economics is the study of money, interest rates, capital and wealth.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

18 December 1998

Minister

Khodirev


Dear Minister,


I am writing today to invite you to our 9thInternational Conference on Competition, which will be held on 10 and11 May 1999 at the Hotel Inter­continental Berlin.


The subject of the 9thInternational Conference on Competition is:


Mega-mergers


I would be very pleased to welcome you to Berlinas a participant at our 9thInternational Conference on Competition. A simultaneous translationservice will be available in German, English and French.


Yours sincerely,


Wolf

President.


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis


аспирантура(канд.экз.)

Экзаменационныйбилет (на 2 листах)по дисциплине

английскийязык

(специальность:экономикаи управлениен/х)


билет №10


TaskI. Translate from English into Russian in writing using a dictionary.Your time is 45 minutes


Management expenses

An investment company, which is, broadly, acompany whose income over a representativeperiod is principally derived from the making or holding ofinvestments, which is the company's purpose or objective, can deductthe expenses of managing its investments, together with any chargeson income paid for business purposes, from its total profits forcorporation tax purposes. Any excess forms part of the managementexpenses of the next accounting period. Its management expenses andcharges on income (after deducting current profits) can also besur­rendered by way of group relief.

As in the case of a trading company, remuneration is not deductibleas a management expense in the period it is charged unless paidwithin nine months (18 months in the transitional period) followingthe end of the period. The rules relating to trading companies inthis context apply equally to investment companies.

An investment company cannot obtain tax relief forshort interest (i.e. interest paid on a loan not capable of exceeding12 months), unless paid to a UK bank, although relief is availablefor discounts on bills of exchange drawn by a company and accepted bya bank and discounted by a bank or discount house. Relief is alsoavailable as charges on income for recurrent payments under currencyand interest rate swaps (see also3.8 above).

In view of the somewhat restricted meaning of the term 'managementexpenses', it is normally preferable for the expenses of a groupmanage­ment company to be recovered (at an uplift) from thesubsidiaries by way of a service fee.


TaskII. Translate the letter from English into Russian without adictionary. Your time is 5-7 minutes

February 25, 2000

Mr. Alexander

President

MICEX


Moscow RUSSIA


Dear Mr. Zakharov:


Please find enclosed the draft Joint Statement on TechnicalAssistance which I received yesterday from the U.S. TradingCommission.


We understand that your office will undertake to forward thisdocument to Chairman Parmenkov.


If the Russian Party finds the proposal acceptable, we should notifyMs. Corcoran of that fact.


We look forward to your future communications on this matter. Bestregards.


Sincerely,


Jeffrey A. Burt


Task III. Conversation on the topic of yourthesis